Millss Hydrino Energy Cells and Developments

Dr. Randell Mills {396a-396c}, {397} has proposed a cosmic sea of hydrinos (the hydrino is a proposed reduced energy state of the hydrogen atom) to explain his tested energy cells. He envisions — and produces a theory for — hydrogen that is reduced to a lower energy state (the "hydrino"). He has gathered considerable evidence for his theory, and has accounted for some sixty or so infrared spectral lines in the sun's radiation that have previously not been explained. Independent tests appear to have validated his energy production claims.

Several major companies are presently working with Mills and his parent company, BlackLight Power, Inc. Progress can be followed from the company website, www.blacklightpower.com. Developments are ongoing in light, power, plasma, and new compositions of matter. A technical book by Mills {398} is freely downloadable from the website, giving his overall theory, as are other publications by Mills et al. {399a-h}. Critical objections to various parts of Mills' theory have been given, e.g., by Zimmerman {400}, with Mills responding strongly and — in our opinion — successfully.

Certain concepts utilized by Mills are, in our opinion, valid and insightful - whether or not the classical quantum mechanics developed by him is found to hold, and whether or not it agrees with ordinary quantum mechanics (which has problems of its own). The point is that the experiments work. It is thus the job of the theorists to find what changes must be made to the theory for it to remain consistent with experiment. If they do not like Mills' theory, the proper procedure is to advance one that is consistent with all the experimental results, and also to show where Mills' theory is inconsistent with the results.

In our own view, an observed positive charge is the output of an ongoing time-reversal process and therefore represents a "time-reversed entity" as observed. Before observation (imposition ofd/dt operator), the positive charge is thus a negative 4-charge comprised of qt, not q. From that viewpoint, the H+ ion, which is just a hydrogen nucleus (a proton) without an electron shell, may be regarded as a time-reversed 4-entity prior to observation. Further, any energy change in and of the hydrogen atom results in a change in the local energy density of spacetime (ST) a priori, hence a change in the local ST curvature.

If we regard the entire hydrogen atom as a set of such ST curvatures and their dynamics, then Mills' consideration of a lower positive energy state hydrino simply implies the addition of an additional negative ST curvature to the ST curvature set associated with the normal hydrogen atom. We note that binding energy of the nucleons is already negative energy, and thus just such a negative spacetime curvature. But the binding energy is itself a spacetime curvature capable of being increased, as can be any spacetime curvature. In the supersystem, addition of such ST curvature is possible, and it is doable electrodynamically, particularly when Heaviside's normally unaccounted huge energy component is accounted and utilized.

In our opinion, Mills' theory should probably be recast into a higher group symmetry electrodynamics — such as O(3) — which has been shown to be intimately connected with Sachs's unified field theory. This would provide an adjusted model that is not only testable but also engineerable. Nonetheless, the concepts of Mills' theory and the theory should be closely examined as they stand, and at least some of the key concepts are engineerable as witnessed by his successful experimental results. That is better than what the critics have offered! A higher group symmetry recasting would enhance and expand his theory even more, and correct any errors that might be present. It would also allow a full theoretic treatment (i.e., a supersystem treatment) of Mills' main concepts, which we believe have much merit.

Further, given Mills' hydrino as we approached it, two hydrinos will each possess such a set of spacetime curvatures (each will possess such a vacuum engine). Later in this book — and elsewhere {401} — we have pointed out that, in a time-reversal zone (TRZ), the law of electromagnetic charge attraction and repulsion is reversed. Accordingly, in a TRZ two or more hydrinos will attract each other so closely that each enters the now-reduced strong force region of the other, forming a quasi-nucleus. As the TRZ decays away back to a normal time-forward zone, because of their power law form the strong forces restore back to normal much faster than the electromagnetic forces do. Hence during its "decay", the quasi-nucleus is energetically compacted into a permanent nucleus, either flipping quarks or giving off one or more particles as necessary to balance its new energy state in the process. We have previously argued that a similar process where a TRZ induces formation of quasi-nuclei also yields the major transmutations {402} demonstrated in a large number of cold fusion experiments worldwide.

The present author has previously proposed an engineerable mechanism (the totality of all photon interactions with a mass) that generates the flow of that mass through time {403}. By manipulating the arrow of time between forward vector and reversed vector, the strong forces in a nucleus (or for a particle) can be directly manipulated in magnitude (and to some extent, even in sign although the latter involves gluon and quark manipulations in the nucleons). By adroit use of these manipulated strong forces and TRZ formation and decay, the energy states of nuclei can indeed be manipulated, including reduced in energy level —just as Mills assumes and presents experimental evidence for, and as cold fusion experiments present experimental evidence for.

We note that two such interacting hydrinos must each possess a specific vacuum engine (specific set of ST curvatures and dynamics). Novel new interactions are available in TRZ's because of manipulation and even reversal of electromagnetic forces, strong forces, etc. and because of nuclear fusion of like charged particles into quasi-nuclei followed by decay into stable nuclei, etc. These novel new particle interactions caused by manipulation of strong spacetime curvature engines and their magnitudes are presently missing from particle physics. Mills, however, does come at them from a somewhat different direction in his own concepts.

The reason for the absence of dominant general relativity effects in most particle physics is that the "total photon interaction" mechanism generating the flow (persistence) of a mass or field through time has not been recognized and used. Consequently, in general only those far weaker ST curvatures due to the weak G-force have been considered. To Mills' great credit, he is aware of the gravitational significance of manipulating much stronger forces and spatial energy densities such as the electromagnetic fields and their energy densities.

The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office then refused a new patent to Mills on one of his processes, and revoked another Mills patent even after already agreeing to award it within two weeks. BlackLight Power, Inc. initiated and lost a lawsuit against the Commissioner of Patents, seeking to reverse this unusual action by the U.S. Patent Office. However, the company's patent portfolio has continued to grow, with extraordinary international applications {404a, 404b}, and several European patents have been filed appropriately. BlackLight Power Inc. seems well funded (some millions of dollars) and well staffed, and we expect to see BlackLight Power, Inc. products entering the market place. Those products will probably be related to fuel cells, plasmas, power converters, generators, separation methods, and novel compounds materials.

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