Multiple Feedforward and Feedback Semiconductor Loops

DeSantis et al. {303} showed that feedback systems with a multipower open loop chain can produce COP > 1.0 performance. In semiconductors, the present author hypothesizes that complex feedforward and feedback loops involving semiconductors can induce time reversal effects, hence some movements of current against the voltage. In short, there can arise a true negative resistance effect, as demonstrated in the Fogal transistor.

Indeed, a Westinghouse frequency converter using 64 transistor stages and similar sophisticated feedforward and feedback mechanisms was placed in the original Minuteman missile, then was later deliberately modified by Westinghouse engineers to prevent its demonstrated COP > 1.0 performance.125 The specific germanium transistor used in the converter was also withdrawn from the market.126 In those days, power meant weight and weight was at a premium in missile design. The power supply was very tightly designed, so that the weight could be minimized.

The converter had been deliberately designed to be 90% efficient, which was quite the state of the art. However, placed in the missile, the average converter would produce from 105% to 115% times as much output power as input power. (We are stating a COP > 1.0, not L, > 100%!) This was more output power than the tightly designed succeeding stages were designed to accept; consequently those overloaded follow-on circuits often burned out and deadlined their Minuteman missiles — something of great strategic concern at the time. The increased rate of Minuteman missiles out of action due to this problem placed great pressure on Westinghouse executives. In turn, they simply ordered the engineers to "fix it!"

Westinghouse simply "fixed the problem" very directly. The engineers reduced the output power of the converter by adding limiting diodes etc. Very quietly, Westinghouse then obtained several patents {304a-c} surrounding the technology, but no further mention of it appears in the literature. The Westinghouse work continued for at least a decade, judging by the spread of the patent dates.

125 Our information came directly from private conversations of a close scientific colleague with the Westinghouse engineers who thoroughly tested the converter causing the Minuteman problems, and who then altered it to prevent the problems.

126 Germanium has some unique properties, particularly with respect to transducing surface longitudinal waves to transverse waves and vice versa.

Such multi-loop, multi-feedback transistor circuits can apparently be developed to exhibit true negative 4-resistor effects. With specialized clamped positive feedback of the Bedini type, such open dissipative systems can then exhibit stable COP>1.0, since the energy is taken from the vacuum via the broken symmetry of dipoles, and then discharged asymmetrically in the loads so as not to destroy the source dipole negative 4-resistors. However, the reader should see Chapter 9 for special considerations and phenomenology.

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