## Negative Energy Localized and Nonlocalized

It sometimes appears there are as many views on negative energy as there are scientists who mention it. Simply put, the Dirac theory of the electron requires negative energy states. The negative energy electron state was envisioned by Dirac as a sort of "hole" in the ambient vacuum, where the hole could contain a positive energy electron. The combination of equal positive energy of the electron and negative energy of the hole itself, would give a "normal" vacuum zero state of the "filled hole". In other words, the normal or ambient vacuum consists of holes filled with electrons. Considered in that fashion, such a vacuum is referred to as the Dirac Sea or the ambient Dirac Sea, or the ambient Dirac vacuum.

If positive energy is added to a filled Dirac hole, the electron can be lifted out, leaving the hole. Note that adding positive EM energy, e.g., is actually the addition of spacetime curvature and dynamics to the Dirac sea vacuum. In short, it is a supersystem interaction, not a system interaction.

In that case, the curvature of the local spacetime interacts upon the electron mass, producing a force that lifts it from the hole. The result is the appearance of a positive energy, positive mass electron and a Dirac sea hole (a 4-positron) in a curved spacetime. That is known as pair production, and it is a supersystem interaction. When a positron and an electron meet, the electron falls into the hole, changing the Dirac sea which also changes the local ST curvature. That change in local ST curvature is a change in the energy density of space, and is normally radiated away as a photon or photons as the local curvature decays back to a flat spacetime. The emitted radiation may further decay into particles, etc. by several reactions well known in particle physics. That "conventional" set of supersystem interactions is known as pair annihilation.

If we deliberately change the ST curvature appropriately, however, the pair annihilation radiation need not be emitted since the excited local spacetime curvature does not decay back to a flat spacetime to emit it.

Dirac's original paper tried to identify a negative energy state vacuum hole as the proton, but later that was falsified and it was taken as the positron. There is a very strong aversion in physics to considering negative mass; hence, the mass of the positron was proclaimed positive (for many reasons not really connected with our thesis). Nevertheless, some physicists (in the minority) still speculate or theorize that negative mass "can exist." Not only "can" it exist, but also it does exist widely and one can demonstrate it in actual electrical circuits. It certainly exists in the binding energy of the nucleons in the nucleus of an atom. Again, a single white crow is sufficient.

We take a very straightforward view: we consider a positron — an electron observed with positive mass and "observed" to be traveling backward in observer time — to be a different (transformed) entity than a Dirac 4-hole traveling forward in observer time.271 The observation operator accomplishes both velocity reversal and time reversal, and — since time is not an observable, the time reversal is "seen" as a reversal in spatial direction. Prior to observation, neither reversal has been imposed. The major distinction, we hypothesize, is that the observed positron has positive mass in 3-space, which is concentrated positive energy, and therefore produces positive energy electrical fields and positive gravitational field. Mass is an observable, hence, it is the iterative frozen 3-space snapshots of an ongoing 4-space process. Observation (and any observable) is the effect of applying the operator <5/5/ upon spacetime LLLT in which a 4-space process is occurring. As we stated earlier in this book, our view is that no observable continuously persists (in time), but continually and iteratively recurs by the continual ripping of time from the ongoing 4-space reaction, to see the 3-space intersection at a frozen moment. We also advanced the mechanism that generates the flow of a mass through time, consisting of a mechanism for 8/dt (LLLt) - photon emission, converting mt to m — and the mechanism for —

photon absorption, converting m to mt.

271 This point is stressed. The unobserved positron is not identically a positive mass electron traveling backwards in time, but a negative mass, negative energy electron traveling forward in time. When Dirac theory of the electron was written, broken symmetry and the CPT theorem had not been discovered. Further, there was no distinction made in the difference between the observed entity (the effect of the observation interaction) and the non-observed entity (the cause of the observation interaction).

272 We stress that we are once again confronting the ubiquitous substitution of the effect for the cause in classical electrodynamics. The observed positron and the unobserved positron are two quite different entities —just as the "cause" of an observation is quite different from the "effect" of the observation.

We may also consider mass to be condensed 3-spatial energy (say, EM energy) compacted by c2. Modern physicists tend to consider the mass-energy itself as the source of the gravitational "attraction of mass" rather than the mass itself {583}. Let us accept that assumption, but differentiate between the observed 3-positron with positive mass and opposite direction in positive observer time, and the unobserved Dirac sea 4-hole with negative mass and without change of direction in the observer's positive time. The 3-positron is an observed effect, while the unobserved Dirac sea 4-hole is an as-yet-unobserved cause.

We also surmised that all EM energy in 3-space comes from time, by our solution {584a} to the long-vexing source charge problem {68}. In our view, we may then consider that the positive energy compressed as 3-space mass has been extracted from the time domain of surrounding spacetime, via entry of that time-energy into the surrounding 3-space at each 3-space point, producing a surrounding spacetime curvature which is known as the gravitational field. This gravitational field represents "withdrawn" 3-space energy from surrounding space, and withdrawn time-energy from the time associated with each surrounding 3-space point.

Hence the gravitational field may be said to consist of "negative energy" since it represents lowered energy of spacetime due to the curvature. This viewpoint yields results consistent with the received view that the energy of the gravitational field is negative. In our view, it is negative precisely because it represents "withdrawn energy" from the normal energy density of that otherwise flat space. The withdrawn nonlocal energy has been localized (as what we call "mass"). Simultaneously that withdrawn 3-spatial energy also represents "withdrawn energy" from the timedomain, since all the withdrawn spatial energy came from the time domain in the first place. The result is the curvature change in spacetime, that is taken as the gravitational field.

The 3-space energy comprising the mass is positive because it is added to the normal energy of an otherwise flat spacetime, at that concentrated locality.

The "energy in the gravitational field" is negative because it represents lowered energy density (i.e., lowered "pressure" in a fluid analogy) of that surrounding nonlocal spacetime compared to when that spacetime was flat

Thus when we add positive energy (a positive energy state) to 3-space, we create normal "positive" gravity because "mass" is a process of withdrawing some positive energy from the energy density of surrounding 3-space.

Here is the shocker: When we add localized negative energy (a localized negative energy state or "4-hole" — or a localized negative mass!) to a local 3-space region, we create "negative" gravity (antigravity) in surrounding space because the withdrawn energy from the local 3-space "hole" must have been added to the energy density of the surrounding spacetime, once we apply conservation of energy. Or in other words, the surrounding spacetime changed (curved) in interaction to the production of the hole.

If we wish, for simplicity we can just consider localized positive energy to generate positive gravitational charge in the surrounding nonlocal spacetime. We can consider localized negative energy to generate negative gravitational charge in the surrounding nonlocal spacetime.

This is where our concepts differ from the rather arbitrary way that a Dirac sea hole is interpreted in the received view. In spacetime, we try to account for the entire energy process and we apply a conservation law by including the supersystem interaction in every case. We insist that positive energy concentrated in positive local mass must have been extracted from surrounding spacetime. 73 That "negative energy" in the surrounding spacetime is what is known as the gravitational field of the source mass (where the energy was withdrawn to). Similarly, we insist that positive energy extracted from a localized region of the ambient vacuum to leave a "Dirac sea hole" must have been spread out into the surrounding spacetime, where it would properly be known as the antigravitational field of the source Dirac hole.

As an analogy in very simple lay terms, the holes associated with a local mass system or region involved in COP>1.0 operations create higher "pressure" outside the system or region with respect to other objects. Higher pressure between any two objects pushes the objects apart. The masses associated with a mass system create lower "pressure" outside the system or object with respect to other objects. Lower pressure between any two objects results in the objects being pushed together by the higher pressures beyond them.

273 Alternatively, if we add local spacetime curvature, the surrounding nonlocal spacetime interacts as mediated by the supersystem changes in all three components. What we are saying is that there is no such thing as just a system, vacuum, or spacetime change. Any change to one is accompanied by a change to the other two, a priori.

We submit that this new view provides an exact (and testable) antigravity mechanism. It appears to have been validated by the Sweet antigravity experiment {576}, which was designed in advance by the present author with increasing the local negative energy reaction in mind.

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