Negative Resistors

We define a true negative resistor as a circuit component or system that receives energy from the environment and outputs useful energy, either in altered form or to power loads usefully. This contrasts sharply with a differential negative resistor, which exhibits negative resistance in one part of its regimen, but where all the excess energy to move the current against the voltage in that regime was previously drawn from the circuit itself and therefore was not freely received from the active external environment. Instead, the operator paid for it already. We are not interested in differential negative resistors, which are well known in the literature {305} and do not enable COP>1.0 system performance, so we will not discuss them further. Hereafter when we use the term "negative resistor", it is understood that we mean "true negative resistor" unless the term is otherwise qualified.

The true negative resistor is an open dissipative system a priori, and equilibrium thermodynamics therefore does not apply. Instead, the thermodynamics of open systems far from equilibrium applies. The negative resistor freely receives energy from outside the system (from the . environment), and "dissipates" it in interception and collection actions inside the system, to freely increase the available potential energy in the system.

In circuits, the main characteristic of a negative resistor is that the environment freely furnishes some excess energy to (i) power the load, and/or (ii) move the current back against the voltage, particularly when shunted across the back emf region of the source dipole. The operator does not have to furnish this excess energy dissipated to propel the current backwards or dissipated to power the load!

One must incorporate the entire supersystem into the analysis of a negative resistance element or system. Since the operator does not furnish the input energy dissipated by the negative resistor, then the active vacuum or curved local spacetime — or both — must furnish the input energy to it. One must consider local curvature of spacetime interactions with the negative resistance and the active vacuum interactions with it, as well as the interactions between active vacuum and local spacetime curvature. In other words, one must again include the active environment of the Maxwellian system that Lorenz/Lorentz symmetrical regauging arbitrarily discarded.

We specifically do not include the well known "differential" negative resistor, such as a tunnel diode, which in one regime moves current against the voltage, all the while drawing all its enabling energy to move current against the voltage from an overall previous energy input by the operator. Unless the input enabling negative resistance energy is freely received from the external environment, true negative resistance is not involved.

Several true negative resistors other than the point-contact transistor have been produced. We review a few of them in the following subparagraphs.

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