Newtons Theory and a Negative Mass Extension
The first mechanism for gravity of interest to our purposes was advanced by Newton in his work on mechanics {495}. Newton's law of gravitation may be stated as {496}:
"A particle ofmass m/ attracts a particle ofmass m2 a distance daway with a force F = G ^ in the direction ofthe line joining the particles.
Of course, it should have stated "in a time forward zone". The situation is precisely reversed in a timereversal zone. It is also reversed for negative massenergy.
In the Newtonian view, antigravity would mean repulsion of mass rather than attraction of mass. Given that negative mass is possible, then a negative mass would exhibit antigravity — i.e., it would be repelled by all other positive masses.214 This can be seen in the quoted equation, by
214 The discussion of what attracts what and what repels what, in a mix of negative and positive masses and negative and positive energies, is still controversial in physics. Different theorists have taken differing positions, and there is no formal experiment that has decided between them. In our opinion, the successful antigravity test of the Sweet vacuum triode amplifier answered that question experimentally, although independent replication was not accomplished. The scientific discussions heavily involve discussions (and assumptions) of the nature of "gravitational" mass, inertial mass, and electrodynamic mass etc. Again, there is no decisive selection among several possibilities, and there is no clear and universally accepted definition of any of those three types of mass.
In addition, all the discussions have included a fundamental error: They assume a separate 3force acting upon a separate 3mass, which is unequivocally false. Another fundamental error is the assumption of an observed (effect) 3positron interacting with normal matter rather than a nonobserved (causal) 4positron (negative energy 4electron) in massfree spacetime. In effect, this applies the CPT (chargeparitytime) symmetry, and converts the direction of the 3positron to the antidirection of the 4positron while also changing the negative mass of the 4positron to positive mass of the 3positron. Further, in physics there is still no firm definition of either force or mass, but only circular definitions between the two. We are using the simple definition of mass as F= d/dt (mv), where mass is a component of force F and hence there is no separate force F acting upon a separate mass m. We interpret that equation as "the force F observed in a new observation is proportional to the timerate of change of the ongoing 4space interaction between the justobserved 3mass m and the average interchange of timeenergy and spaceenergy represented by v in the ongoing dynamics between spacetime and mass m. Whatever adjective is prefaced upon the F is also prefaced upon the m in the mv term.
We politely but firmly disagree with one prevailing notion that positive mass attracts both positive and negative mass, while negative mass repels both types. Further, we believe that the Sweet vacuum triode amplifier antigravity experiment falsified that notion. We hold to the dictum that m == E/c2, where E is real spatial energy and may be positive or negative, c2 is always positive, and therefore negative mass is highly compressed negative spatial energy while positive mass is highly compressed positive spatial energy. (Imaginary mass is a separate consideration.) We also prefer to reason in "single fundamental units" physics where the joule is the only fundamental unit. Gravity then becomes a function of the joule, whether electromagnetic, mechanical, or whatever. We consider the energy in spacetime to he the source of the curvature of spacetime that is known as " gravitational field". If the joule is of positive energy, the accompanying gravity is positive. If the joule is of negative energy, the accompanying gravity is negative. And we consider gravity as the 4space causal spacetime curvature. So for gravitational interaction theory, we insist on examining the interaction of the curvature of local spacetime with the massenergy. Further, we postulate that the gravitational effect upon one mass from a second mass is an improperly posed concept. It actually is an effect of the local curvature of spacetime around the first mass, where that curvature of spacetime was induced by the second mass's energy. Further, we consider that positive energy fields surrounding a positive mass will curve spacetime in the "positive gravity" direction. The positive mass is attracted by all other positive masses. Negative energy fields surrounding that positive mass system curve spacetime in the "negative gravity" direction so that the positive mass of the system is at least partially repelled by all other positive masses in the universe.
We further prefer to think in terms of the supersystem and the unobserved causal 4field, not the frozen iterative 3field snapshots defined only after iterative . observations. As we stated previously, the "observed" 3positron is, in our view, a very different beast from the asyetunobserved 4positron. The 3positron is a frozen momentary "effect" entity with no dynamics at all and no continuous existence in time (and hence in spacetime) at all; instead, it continually recurs as the iterative effect of iterative observation by iterative application of the d/dt observation operator. The 4positron is still a negative energy electron with negative charge, and still going in a nonreversed direction since broken parity has not been applied (because observation has not been applied), a causal entity with ongoing dynamics, continuously existing in spacetime, not just in 3space. Until interacted and observed, it also has negative energy and negative massequivalency.
If one wishes to accurately deal with spacetime effects from the "positron," in our view one must deal with the 4positron before observation, and hence with the supersystem. The 3positron is not a spacetime entity, but only a frozen 3spatial snapshot. Scientists, including Dirac himself, were horrified at the negative mass implications of the negative energy states. Therefore, they moved the interpretation simply replacing positive mass mj by negative mass mj . That two negative masses would attract can be seen by replacing positive mass m; by negative mass ( m), and also replacing positive mass m2 by negative mass ( m2).
Now consider mass m; to be the rest of the net positive mass in the universe, and mass m2 to be the "effective" mass in a local supersystem consisting of the local physical system, its local active vacuum, and its local active curvatures of spacetime — in short, in a local supersystem consisting of the physical system and its local active environment, and the interchanges between them. Let mi = mp + mn, where mp is the amount of local positive mass (or massequivalent) in the system and m„ is the amount of negative mass (or mass equivalent) in the system. This supersystem now simultaneously exhibits both positive gravity (attraction) to all net positive masses in the universe and negative gravity (repulsion) to them as well. The net gravitational response of the supersystem depends upon the fraction of the effective mass that is positive and the fraction that is negative — in short, upon the net vector sum of the two gravitational forces.
to the 3positron, and thereby twisted the interpretation to substitute the effect for the cause. Hence circuit theory treats the lattice hole as a positron, yet that "hole" acts very differently from a true Dirac positron (a Dirac sea negative energy electron) in free space.
Consequently, matterantimatter interactions and the interaction between positive energy and negative energy are quite different, or they can be if so manipulated prior to observation. In the matterantimatter interaction, the initial curvature of spacetime formed by the union decays by radiation of EM positive energy and the "effect particles" disappear back into the uncurved vacuum from whence they came. In the positive energy and negative interaction, there is a change of the local curvature of spacetime without its decay and subsequent reradiation of EM energy. Equal amounts of interacting positive and negative EM field energy thus are simply transduced into stress energy potential of the vacuum and consequent sustained change in the curvature of the local spacetime. Indeed, the radiation of pair annihilation energy is obtained only at the expense of negating (relaxing) the local polarization of the vacuum (and the two consequent curvatures of local spacetime) represented by the independent positron and electron. Indeed, normal pair annihilation is a sort of Lorentz symmetrical regauging of the locally asymmetrical vacuum.
The reader is certainly free to disagree with our conclusions; we are merely explaining them. Experiment will eventually sort out the truth or falsity of the approach. So far, based on the Sweet experiment designed by the present author, a highly successful experiment was consistent with this approach.
In a "mixed" mass system containing both positive and negative component masses, the fraction of the total mass that is positive and the fraction that is negative is thus significant. When the mixture's negative mass is less than its positive mass, the mixture would exhibit a "reduced" gravitational attraction to other masses of the universe. Then the ratio of negative mass to positive mass might be taken as the "gravitational shielding" coefficient (fraction).
When the amount of positive mass and the amount of negative mass were equal, the overall mass system would exhibit no net gravity or antigravity, and would "float" or "hover" in the Earth's gravitational field. It would be equally attracted and repelled by the Earth's positive mass (and by all other positive mass in the universe, hence could — at least under certain conditions — appear inertiafree.). When the amount of negative mass exceeds the amount of positive mass, the overall mass system would exhibit a net antigravity effect. It would be repelled more strongly by the Earth's positive mass, as well as more weakly by the distant positive masses of the universe, and hence would accelerate upwards and away from the Earth. Notice that the key to antigravity in the Newtonian approach is the availability of negative mass, but in the new sense in which we use it. Note also that we did not discuss the separate issue of imaginary mass.
If we translate that into modern terms, where we consider not the "mass" but the condensed energy comprising the mass, then mp and mn become positive massenergy and negative massenergy terms respectively. Given the ability to produce electromagnetically produce substantial negative field energy in the immediate vacuum environment of the system, where the source of the field is the physical system, then the creation of a direct antigravity component in the system's environment — the other two components of its supersystem — becomes not only possible but also feasible.
The key to antigravity becomes the availability ofnegative field energy in the local space surrounding the physical object, with the physical object containing the source of that surrounding spatial negative energy field. Voila! This impels us directly to electrodynamics and a modified Dirac sea {497, 498a, 498b), one with excess empty holes as source charges producing negative energy EM fields. We deliberately create these unique source charges by actions taken in a COP»1.0 system. This gives the key to the approach to antigravity taken by the present author.215 However, we use as negative energy not just the accounted Poynting energy flow component in space where the field is present, but also the unaccounted Heaviside energy flow component, which is much greater in magnitude (in a nominal case, nearly 1013 times greater). In this way, we dramatically increase the amount of antigravity effect that can be obtained by a given EM power dissipation in the physical electrodynamic system itself. This antigravity effect of a Heaviside component ofEM negative energyflow has not been accounted in previous analyses.
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