## Ning Li and separately E Podkletnov

Very interesting work was performed by Ning Li {532a-532d}, a scientist originally with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), who returned to China for a while but is now back in Huntsville. Quoting David Brown from the UAH website from 1997:

"In 1989, Dr. Ning Li of UAHpredicted that ifa time varying magnetic field were applied to a superconductor, chargedanddeformedlattice ions within the conductor could absorb enormous amounts ofenergy via the

223 Many times I have been asked how such small output power increase (from 500 to 1,000 watts) could possibly achieve such dramatic antigravity results. The answer -due to the neglected Heaviside nondiverged energy flow component — lies in multiplying the power output by the "Heaviside energy amplification factor k " where k may be as large as 101 . A 500-watt accounted increase, multiplied by 1013. is actually an incredible increase in the total EM negative energy field density being created in the local vacuum. In short, a very little "accounted" power increase of the COP»1.0 VTA output is actually a very vast negative power output increase when the long neglected k-factor is accounted. It is just this missing k-factor and the failure to account for the negative energy KM fields generated in COP»1.0 discharges in violent astronomical phenomena that seem to be responsible for generating the excess antigravity that is accelerating the expansion of the universe.

magnetic moment effect. This acquired energy would cause the lattice ions to spin rapidly about their equilibrium positions and create a miniscule gravitational field. Dr. Li's calculations showed that ifthese charged, rotating, lattice ions were aligned with each other by a strong magnetic field, the resulting change in local gravity would be measurable.

"PodkletnovandNieminen (1992) {533} made the accidental discovery that a single-phase, dense, bulk, high Tc, superconducting, ceramic disk spinning at 5,000 rpm can produce a 2 percent reduction in the weight ofnon-conducting, non-magnetic objectsplacedover the spinning disk. UAH and MSFC [Marshall Space Flight Center, apart ofNASA] [cooperated] on a joint research project to independently confirm the results of the Podkletnov experiment and to validate Dr. Li's theory of gravity modification via superconductor. On March 26th, 1997, as a part ofthis project, thejoint UAH-MSFC research team produced the largest high temperature superconducting disk ever manufactured in the USA. This disk measures 12 inches in diameter and is 0.5 inches thick "

We now explain the experiments, from our point of view of the mechanism for antigravity. We remark that, at least in theory, the charges in such a rotating superconducting disk have an inward "discharge" acceleration force that is a function of the distance of the charge from the rotation axis center. Hence, in the rotating frame, some of these charges are very strongly "accelerating" toward the center, as are their spins whose magnetic vector is orthogonal to the E-field vector. A flow of EM energy exists perpendicular to the rotating flat disk and is accelerating at right angles to the disk surface. This is analogous to a discharge (sudden acceleration) phenomenon, and it will also produce accelerating negative energy Dirac sea 4-holes in the vacuum component of the supersystem of the spinning disk. So from the spinning disk there is a sort of "wide beam" of Dirac sea 4-hole current in the vacuum, radiating at right angles to the disk surface, with heavier concentrations toward the outside of the disk. The result is that objects in the Earth's gravitational field, and also placed in the path of this negative energy Dirac sea 4-hole current, is acted upon by two superposed curvatures of local spacetime: (1) the positive curvature due to the Earth's gravitational field, and (2) the negative curvature due to the negative energy field's curving local spacetime. The total net gravitational effect will be due to the algebraic sum of the superposed two spacetime curvatures — the normal positive curvature from the Earth's gravitational field and the second a negative curvature created by the Dirac sea hole current's negative energy fields (Heaviside energy flow component considered). The expectation is therefore a reduction in the weight of the object, as is shown in the experiments.

The UAH-MSFC group was unable to confirm Podkletnov's findings.224 Ning Li and the NASA group later split amicably. Ning Li continued her theoretical work, eventually ceased publishing papers for a period to protect the techniques and experimental results achieved in her work, and focused upon potential applications. She apparently returned to China for some time, but is now back in Huntsville, Alabama and still experimenting. We suspect there may also be a Chinese research effort into antigravity, using the approach taken by Ning Li. Perhaps information from that program will be released in the future.

But what of the work of Podkletnov since his original experiments? NASA continued to try to replicate his disk and his work, with Podkletnov acting as a consultant. Presently, NASA has paid an independent research firm to replicate the disk to full specifications, which has just been accomplished as this is written. At this writing, the experimental results of this new attempt are not yet available as the work is still in progress. It should be available by the time this book is published.

Meanwhile, a relatively new paper by Podkletnov and Modanese has been published on the Los Alamos National Laboratory website.225 This method uses high amperage sharp pulse discharges from a superconducting ceramic electrode, to produce an anomalous radiation in a focused beam. Significantly, the beam does not noticeably attenuate through different materials. The beam exerts a short repulsive force on small movable objects on the propagation axis, with the force proportional to the mass of the objects.

224 E. Podkletnov and R. Nieminen, "A possibility of gravitational force shielding by bulk YBa2Cu307-x superconductor," Physica C, Vol. 203, 1992, p. 441-444.

225 Evgeny Podkletnov and Giovanni Modanese, "Impulse Gravity Generator Based on Charged YBa2Cui07-y Superconductor with Composite Crystal Structure," carried on website http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/physics/0108005.

We interpret the results as completely consistent with our own proposed excess gravity and antigravity mechanism. We know that such sharp discharges produce significant Dirac sea 4-hole currents in the local vacuum component of the supersystem. Such currents in a beam interact very little with intervening materials, and the major spacetime curvature effects are concentrated upon the propagation axis. On that axis, force effects can be expected upon small independent objects, due to the additional negative curvature added to the local spacetime in their supersystem. The impulse produced on the object should indeed be proportional to the mass of the object and independent of its composition, since it is a gravitational force effect induced by local curved spacetime. The force should be repulsive in the beam, since that is the direction of the antigravity force that will be induced in objects in the axis of the beam, by the beam of negative energy Dirac 4-holes. A positive gravity force would mean attraction between the object in the propagation path and the source of the beam. A negative gravity force would therefore mean repulsion.

So Podkletnov and other scientists are still working on a successful effect. It will be interesting to see what results are reported in the future, and whether they will deviate from their present attempt to explain the effect by a combined quantum gravity and anomalous vacuum fluctuations approach.

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