## Peculiarities of Spacetime Curvature and Dirac Hole Interactions

When considering the interaction between curved spacetime and the Dirac vacuum, immediately we violate the premise that all electron states in the Dirac Sea are always filled (which condition we surmise — along with Dirac — only exists on the average in a flat spacetime region). In a curved spacetime, we can have sustained excess 4-holes in the vacuum, or we can have holes that accept an electron falling into them without emitting radiation. The radiation-free "pair annihilation" reaction is possible when the spacetime simultaneously changes its curvature appropriately and thereby "absorbs" and holds the excess EM energy that would otherwise be emitted if the spacetime remained flat or decayed back to the flat state.256 So long as that "energy-storing ST curvature" remains, there is no photon energy emission. If the "energy storing ST curvature set" has a net curvature instead of being flat, and then decays to a flat spacetime, then the previously retained energy is emitted as photon energy.

In that case the reaction provides the conventional emitted pair annihilation energy. In that case, the emitted energy may also transform into emitted particles in reactions well known in particle physics.

256 Eerily, this interaction represents a situation where opposite reaction forces (the vacuum upon spacetime, and spacetime upon the vacuum) can create a special kind of stress in the system and changes in that stress. This leads to a peculiar kind of stress waves (scalar waves — longitudinal EM waves, so to speak) that are not covered in circuit theory anywhere. A symptom is that these stress waves react with components, amplifiers, preamps, etc. to create electrostatic waves. The effect of these waves is seen as the "crawling" of electrostatics all over and in the electrical equipment that is in one's laboratory. The effect can readily damage oscilloscopes, etc.

The normal emission of photons by pair annihilation need not occur, if the excess decay energy is absorbed and held by the local spacetime changing and holding its energy density and therefore (i) changing its curvature and (ii) stabilizing in that new excited state instead of decaying back to a flat spacetime.25 Under such "non-emitting" pair recombination, a Dirac Sea 4- hole may simply "eat" a free 4-electron, and instead of emitting radiation the process simply affects the curvature of spacetime (and the state of the local Dirac sea) and changes it accordingly. A new "equilibrium state" is therefore reached in the supersystem between the opposite forces of the vacuum acting on spacetime and spacetime acting on the vacuum.258 In other words, we consider change in the curvature of spacetime to exhibit EM energy source (emission) or sink (absorption) capability, with respect to the nominal ambient flat spacetime and with respect to conventional EM interactions.259

0r simply put, the energy emitted by the combination of positive and negative energy in the vacuum may be "locally radiated", "locally absorbed", or "locally transferred" to the other local component of the supersystem: the local curvature of spacetime. It is all spacetime curvature dynamics. By definition, a flat local spacetime consists of a vacuum with all its Dirac sea holes filled. Therefore, if "filling a 4-hole" results merely

257 0ur view is that in normal pair annihilation this curving of spacetime to absorb the emission energy occurs first, and then the new ST curvature decays by what is called "emission of photon energy". We regard the photon as a specialized ST curvature traveling at light speed. So what is emitted as a photon is in fact the formation of a locally structured spacetime curvature (an "engine") traveling at light speed. It is a propagating spacetime curvature "engine" or "set of engines". In the process we are describing, the emission of the photon is the decay of the locally formed ST curvature set. If that set does not decay, the locally formed ST curvature set remains and no photon is emitted.

258 This new kind of equilibrium is extraordinarily important, particularly in chemistry, where it will allow the "locking" of impossible combinations of particles into strangely stable "impossible molecules" with ongoing "impossible chemical reactions". The further discussion of the startling new chemistry that emerges is well beyond the scope of this paper, but such chemical states are included in nonequilibrium thermodynamics as stationary states — e.g., see Kondepudi and Prigogine, Modern Thermodynamics, Wiley, 1998, Chapter 17. At least one company has already succeeded in initiating this startling new kind of chemistry, with several patents granted and several more in process. Similar new "impossible stabilized excited states" and "impossible nuclear reactions" also occur in nuclear physics.

259 The classical EM assumption of the flat local spacetime is in fact an assumption that the decay of the intermediate "ST curvature absorber/sink" occurs instantly.

in relaxation of a set of local ST curvatures back to a flat spacetime, no EM radiation need be emitted, contrary to the usual pair annihilation phenomenon where additional energy (curvature of spacetime) is involved.

Similarly, in a ST curvature, there can conceivably be electrons without "holes". If the curvature is negative, there will be unfilled Dirac sea holes present. Of course this is just a normal positive energy 4-electron, where the flat spacetime assumption in classical electrodynamics is in error. Instead, the local spacetime is positively curved, producing positive gravity. Whenever the energy density of spacetime-vacuum interaction changes from the "ambient vacuum and flat spacetime" condition, either positively or negatively, that constitutes an appropriate curvature of spacetime as well as a change in the vacuum dynamics. Therefore, in classical electrodynamics the assumption of a normal electron (or any other charge or mass) existing in an uncurved spacetime and an unaltered vacuum is a non sequitur. The local spacetime has in fact "curved" to an extent of holding the energy of one electron mass.260 Further, the Dirac Sea has also changed to contain one unfilled and unobserved Dirac 4-hole.

With these things in mind, let us now introduce a conceptual model for dealing with these novel 4-hole phenomena that are experienced in COP>1.0 systems — and that have been the bane of many a would-be energy researcher attempting to develop a system extracting its EM energy from the vacuum and using it to also power the system itself.

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