## Photons and Waves in Minkowski Spacetime

Photons are made of angular momentum (action); i.e., of energyx time. Waves, being made of photons, carry both spatial (decompressed) energy and time (highly compressed) energy — although physics has largely omitted the time-energy-carrying aspect, and only accounted for the spatial energy-carrying aspects. An EM wave in space is actually a wave of the particular spacetime curvatures that produce angular momenta in interacting charged masses. The standard notion of E and B fields at right angles in a plane in 3-space, traveling along the z- direction and with the plane orthogonal to z-, and with E and B field vectors oscillating back and forth, is nonsense, as acidly commented upon by Romer {603}, the former editor of American Journal ofPhysics.

Nonetheless, using the standard way of modeling the "transverse" EM wave: In conventional electrodynamics, a transverse EM wave is one where the 3-spatial energy density is considered to be varying rhythmically at right angles to the direction of wave propagation, and the time-density is assumed to be non-varying, or at least altered only by special relativistic considerations in certain cases.296 A longitudinal EM wave has its spatial energy density fixed in x- and y- directions, and its energy density is oscillating along z-, the direction of wave propagation, by a "compression" and "rarefaction" process much like squeezing an accordion. This, however, leads to a "galloping" motion where the wave is alternately very superluminal and very subluminal at given instants, but moving at an average velocity of c {604}. On the other hand, a time-density (scalar) EM wave by definition is not varying in its 3-spatial energy density, and

296 We point out that a wave of varying spatial energy density is moving in a varying curved ST a priori, by general relativity. If the "wave" were in a flat spacetime as normally assumed, the EM flat spacetime would eliminate the EM wave itself. This has been particularly pointed out by Sachs and by Evans.

therefore is not varying in x-, y-, or z-. Instead, the energy is in the form of time-energy, and its variation is in time density. So its energy density is oscillating along the fourth Minkowski axis, ict, as an oscillation of the energy density of the variable t. It is therefore polarized in the t- direction.

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