## Physical Considerations of Gauge Freedom

Additional physical considerations must be accounted when gauge freedom is invoked or utilized with respect to physical systems. Applied to electrodynamics systems, gauge freedom assumes the ability to freely change any potential of the system being studied. From the physics of the situation, a system potential change concomitantiy assumes changing the potential energy of the system itself for which gauge freedom changes are being theoretically applied to system-descriptive equations.

If one can freely increase the potential energy of an EM system, the extra energy has to come from a physical asymmetry of the system with its active environment — the active vacuum. Else, one must surrender the conservation of energy law. At worst, gauge freedom would then imply the creation and destruction of energy at will. At best, it would imply a return to the view that potentials are mere mathematical conveniences with no physical reality — a notion falsified for decades by the AB effect {647}. freely decreasing the potential energy of the system by simply depotentializing it, has a similar vacuum asymmetry requirement for de-excitation of the system, where energy must flow from the system to the vacuum.

### 11.7 Special Modeling of the Vacuum

Having EM energy density, the vacuum is and should be modeled as a scalar potential of great magnititude. For deeper (supersystem) analysis, one will also have to examine the internal EM longitudinal phase conjugate wavepair structure and dynamics of the scalar potential vacuum {672}, along the lines shown by Whittaker {644} in 1903 and re-interpreted by the present author {643} in 2000. From quantum field theory arguments, Mandl and Shaw {646} give strong support to the proposed reinterpretation. They argue that neither the scalar (time-polarized) photon , nor the longitudinal photon is independently observable, but the combination of the two is observable as the instantaneous scalar potential.

Transforming this argument to EM waves yields a solution consistent with the reinterpretation {643}. The result is that all 3-space EM energy comes from the time-domain, in a manner not previously utilized in EM circuit analysis. It is experimentally established by proving (measuring) that the source charge and dipole do not receive observable EM energy in 3-space, but continuously output observable EM energy in 3-space. Simply making and destroying dipoles in an electrical system turns out to be a method for direct engineering of negentropy and entropy respectively — or, from another viewpoint, it directly engineers regauging.

The greatest unrecognized problem in conventional electrical power system engineering is its total failure to include the making and destroying of dipoles as direct engineering of negentropy and entropy respectively.

Every EM potential in an EM system is a change to the energy density of the ambient vacuum potential — and thus is a spacetime curvature — or it is a change to an intermediate potential that is such a vacuum potential change. Vacuum exchange with every EM system and asymmetry in that exchange, is ubiquitous and cannot be prevented. Whenever one makes or changes an EM potential, field or wave, and whenever one regauges, one invokes and utilizes asymmetry in the interaction of the active vacuum and the system, either wittingly or unwittingly. Else one must discard the conservation of energy law altogether. There is no symmetry of a mass system alone {673}, without including the vacuum's asymmetrical interaction with it. The reason is simple: all observables involve asymmetry {674} a priori, and mass is an observable.

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