Point Contact Transistor

Figure 5-8 diagrammatically shows a point-contact transistor with n-type base in a typical circuit for power gain. The point of the contact is under pressure on the material with which it is in contact.

Point Contact Transistor
Figure 5-8 Point contacttransistor with n-type base.

The point-contact transistor often behaved in true negative resistor fashion, outputting more energy than was input to it. Its production was always far more of an art than a science.

As can be seen from our quotation at the beginning of this chapter, the original point-contact transistor was never thoroughly understood technically.142 Specifically, there does not appear to have ever been any deliberate attempt to capitalize on the ability of the transistor to become a true negative resistor under certain manufacturing techniques and under certain conditions.143 Instead, the variations and difficulties in manufacture resulted in use of the point-contact transistor being essentially bypassed rather quickly, by advancing to other transistor types more easily manufactured and with less manufacturing variances. In reducing the manufacture of other types of transistors to a science rather than an art, the point-contact transistor and its further development and optimization into reliable true negative resistors were abandoned.

We present this transistor as a straightforward and relatively inexpensive area in which young researchers in COP>1.0 systems and phenomenology may wish to begin, assuming they have access to semiconductor facilities in a university or similar or are willing to work meticulously under a jeweler's loupe. A rich combination of effects in the transistor awaits optimization and control. We predict that we shall yet see, on the world market of the future, such point contact transistors reliably exhibiting

142 E.g., different theories are given in: (a) W. Shockley, "Theories of high values of alpha for collector contacts on germanium," Phys. Rev, Vol. 78, 1950, p. 294; (b) W. R. Sittner, "Current multiplication in the Type A transistor," Proc. I.R.E., Vol. 40, Apr. 1952, p. 448-454. Also of interest is (c) W. van Roosbroeck, "Theory of the flow of electrons and holes in germanium and other semiconductors," Bell System Tech.. J, Vol. 29, Oct. 1950, p. 560-607. See also (d) J. Bardeen and W. H. Brattain, "The transistor, a semiconductor triode," Phys. Rev, Vol. 74, 1948, p. 230. For a more modern re-examination, see Shuji Hasegawa et at, "Electronic transport at semiconductor surfaces — from point-contact transistor to multi-tip STM," Oyo Buturi, 70(10), 2001, p. 1165-1171 (in Japanese).

143 E.g., the point contact is usually under pressure, and this pressure of course can be varied. The full phenomenology of points (which increase voltage) and pressure, complicated by surface effects as well, has not been worked out in physics. Note the similarity of the pressure in the point contact transistor to the pressure in the Chung negative resistor. Note the almost certain involvement of the "overpotential" of chemistry and electrode chemistry, as well as the "double surface" effect of the small gap between the point and the substrate on which it rests in contact. Part of the gap probably even involves the Casimir effect as well. Any electrical signal variation in that very complex point junction will vary the overpotential, the stress potential, the "point increase in voltage" effect, etc. As can be seen, the phenomenology of the point contact is remarkably complex and rich in several areas of physics and in a great variety of physics variables. Obviously, the reasonable control of all these highly nonlinear variables — and their mutual interactions — is a difficult matter. Hence the readiness with which point contact transistors were dropped with substantial sighs of relief.

negative resistance. It will be necessary, however, to also take into account the symmetrical self-regauging characteristics of the common closed-current-loop circuit. By adroit switching of a true negative resistor in and out of a closed-current-loop branch, or placing it in parallel with the back emf of that branch to reduce it, asymmetry can be introduced into the overall closed current loop circuit, defeating the Lorentz symmetrical regauging. Defeating the Lorentz condition is essential to COP>1.0, of course.

We envision such a development as an ideal "negative resistance shunt" to add across the secondary of a transformer, and another possibly across its primary and across the external power supply as well, in producing more amenable and easily fabricated COP>1.0 electrical systems. We also point out that, once the back emf or back mmf forcing of equal power dissipation in the primary of a transformer or in the emf section of a circuit is dramatically reduced or eliminated, one does not require "large intensity" potentials and voltages to collect a great deal of power in the intercepting and receiving external circuit. Again, by simple W = Vq, as much energy W can be collected from any nonzero potential V as there are charges q to intercept.

We also envision such a true negative resistor being close-looped by the Bedini process, thus producing a small "self-powering" transistor, which in effect becomes a small self-powering "battery". This is absolutely a doable process, and it will be done once the Fogal semiconductor is in production.

Almost all semiconductor materials are also optically active materials, and a point discharge into such materials represents a very sharp regauging (higher voltage) discharge at a point or into a very small area, due to the increase in potential at the tip where it contacts the base material. The point junction is under pressure, so a stress potential exists there. In addition, the well-known "point" effect also increases the potential in the junction pointer itself, from its base to the point. The point contact phenomenology of different materials — one conductive and one semiconductive — is of much interest, and with novel phenomenology.

The fact that the point-contact transistor in its most usual formulation primarily uses holes more than electrons, is also of much interest in COP>1.0 situations. Holes in a circuit move against the voltage. The trick is to let the Dirac holes before observation move in an open path from the ground return line against the back emf to the potentialization line, and transduce the moving hole current (via the Bedini process) into electron current after the holes have already freely reached the vicinity of the high side of the circuit.

When Dirac sea holes (causal positrons before observation and thus prior to their alteration to lattice holes and parity reversal) and Dirac sea hole current are also involved with point-contact transistors, the resulting phenomenology has been but little investigated and none of it is in the present textbooks. However, from recent work with positron probes and positron microscopes to examine semiconductors and semiconductor materials, it is known that the holes (positrons) tend to be repelled from nuclei in the material into defects (voids) in it {331}. These effects have been investigated, for example by Triftshauser et al. {332}.

Both the mechanical stress potential (which is fundamentally electromagnetic) and the heightened junction potential decompose via our reinterpretation of Whittaker's 1903 decomposition of the scalar potential. This leads to optical-type pumping in both the time domain as well as the 3-space domain. Hence novel optical-type effects and time-reversal of material states can be involved, leading to a very complex set of phase conjugate phenomena, time-reversal phenomena, etc.

Certain Hall effects employed in conjunction with a point contact transistor could be a fruitful area of investigation. As an example, narrow Hall bars with junctions between current and voltage leads of various geometries could be investigated. Widening the junction from the normal square-cornered shape can sometimes produce a negative Hall resistance.

Thejunction of the point contact involves asymmetrical self-regauging, iterative time-reversal retroreflection, increased Poynting and Heaviside energy flow components, optical scattering processes inside the junction materials, etc. The transistor can indeed be manufactured so that these highly nonlinear effects sum to a negative-resistor-like movement of the output current against the voltage, although with so many other phenomena involved it will require some hard work and research in order to develop and stabilize it — and understand it.

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