## Reinterpreting Whittakers Decomposition of the Scalar Potential

As previously stated, we applied and re-interpreted Whittaker 1903 decomposition of the potential {85} between the ends of the dipole. The scalar potential is actually a harmonic set of bidirectional longitudinal EM wavepairs, where each wavepair consists of an outgoing EM longitudinal EM wave in real 3-space and an incoming EM longitudinal EM wave in the complex plane. Hence we have a new and novel EM energy flow symmetry in 4-space, where (as seen by the observer) the broken 3-symmetry of the dipole has removed the usual arbitrary imposition of an additional condition of 3-space energy flow symmetry as well. Simply making a dipole permissibly breaks the 3-space conservation of energy flow symmetry, and moves to 4-dimensional conservation of energy flow. Both EM energy conservation in 3-space and in the time domain are individually broken, but conservation of energy flow is now upheld between the time-domain and the 3-space domain. In blunt terms, we "consume a little time" to get any EM energy that exists in 3-space.

68 We leave to a future sharp young graduate student the business of expressing the angular momentum (spin) of the charged particle as a result of giant negentropy in EM energy flow between the time domain and 3-space. It can probably be done by deeply considering the giant negentropy process for an "isolated" observable charge considered as also containing its clustering set of virtual charges of opposite sign.

The broken symmetry of a source dipole — or of a source charge considered with its clustering virtual charges of opposite sign as a set of dipoles — produces a continuing giant 3-negentropy, as seen by the observer. He only sees the steady 3-space outpouring of energy, and sees that it will continue as long as the dipole or charge remains intact.

To clarify the "isolated charge" as a set of composite dipoles, see Figure 3-3. There is no such thing as an isolated observable charge in 3-space; instead, the observable charge is surrounded by attracted virtual charges of opposite sign in the active vacuum. We take a differential piece of the observable charge and a momentary virtual charge of opposite sign, and call the two a "composite dipole". An observable charge is simply a set of composite dipoles connecting virtual and observable energies and energy flows.

Hence any source charge (classical sense) may be considered such a set of composite dipoles. So any source charge also multiply initiates the broken 3-symmetry and broken t-symmetry in EM energy flow (as interpreted by the observer), but conserves energy flow 4-symmetry between the time domain and the 3-space domain. In 4-space, there is an energy flow circulation from the time domain to 3-space and back to the time domain again.

This special circulation of energy is strikingly similar to, and may be an extension of, Heaviside's unpublished theory of combined electrodynamics and gravity, where he used closed circulation of EM energy as exhibiting gravitational effects (in modern terms, producing spacetime curvature) {195, 172b.}. This approach or extensions of it may yet have a profound impact on physics, as commented upon by Laithwaite {196}. Certainly Heaviside considered his own energy flow theory. So it appears that he considered the excess energy flow — that "misses" the interaction with the circuit or assumed unit point charge and is not utilized — as producing gravity. That of course would be in perfect agreement with modern general relativity, since any change in the local energy density of vacuum is also a change in the local curvature of spacetime. We have called that Heaviside nondiverged and unaccounted EM energy flow by the label dark positive energy. See our further discussion of unaccounted (dark) positive energy in paragraph 3.8 below.

'Make dipole" function_ _'True negative resistor" function

(Entropic) ~ (Giant negentropy)

Figure 3-4 Dipole in generator powering circuits, taking energy from the time domain.

'Make dipole" function_ _'True negative resistor" function

(Entropic) ~ (Giant negentropy)

Figure 3-4 Dipole in generator powering circuits, taking energy from the time domain.

See Figure 3-4. This 4-symmetry is a far more fundamental energy flow symmetry than either 3-symmetry or t-symmetry. Both the "isolated charge" and the dipole are open systems far from equilibrium with their external active environment (the active vacuum and the active curvatures of spacetime). They are permitted to perform the five "magical" functions of disequilibrium thermodynamical systems. Such a system can: (i) self-order, (ii) self-oscillate or self-rotate, (iii) output more energy than the operator inputs, (iv) power itself and its loads (the "load" of a source dipole or source charge may be said to be comprised of the associated fields and potentials reaching across all space, and the continuous flow of energy necessary to maintain those fields and potentials), and (v) exhibit negentropy.

The source charge and the source dipole exhibit all five functions. We often refer to these characteristics of a charge or dipole as its giant negentropy functions {197}.

It only takes a single white crow to prove that not all crows are black. Every charge and dipolarity in the universe is already a Maxwellian system far from thermodynamic equilibrium with its local active environment — the very class of Maxwellian systems that Lorenz/Lorentz symmetrical regauging of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations arbitrarily discards. That local environment consists of the local curvatures of spacetime and the local active vacuum. The system together with the two components of its active environment is called the supersystem. All three components of the supersystem continuously interact with each other and exchange energy. All is dynamic, continuously. Any appearance of a "static state" in the system is actually an equilibrium condition stabilized in the ongoing supersystem dynamics.

So one does not have to "prove" that Maxwellian systems exhibiting COP>1.0 (even COP = oo) are possible. Every charge and dipolarity in the universe is already just such a Maxwellian system, even though all such systems are erroneously discarded by Lorenz/Lorentz symmetrical regauging. Either one must accept asymmetry and COP>1.0 EM systems in electrodynamics, or one must purge from the theory all the charges and dipoles and all effects from them. That destroys all the charges, all the fields, and all the potentials.

That also destroys electrodynamics itself, as well as chemistry, particle physics, and most of modern science. The arch critic of overunity EM system research would do well to acquaint himself with some additional physics. Either that, or practice what he advocates, and give up all charges and dipoles and all effects from them — including in chemistry, particle physics, materials science, etc. When he holds on to the charges and dipoles while insisting on the impossibility of COP>1.0 Maxwellian systems, his cherished conventional EM theory eats itself by its own tail and becomes an oxymoron.

## Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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