Remarks on Dirac Sea Holes Currents and Negative Energy

The subject of the Dirac Sea, Dirac holes, Dirac hole currents, and negative energy still has elements of strong disagreement within the scientific community and among leading theorists. Often the "conclusion" one reaches depends on the way the starting assumptions are made and then on how the mathematics is applied. There is no definitive experiment establishing that negative energy cannot exist; to the contrary, many things do occupy negative energy states. The binding energy of the nucleus, e.g., involves a loss of mass (loss of positive energy) and hence involves negative energy states, as is well known. Here the "negative mass" effect is immediately and experimentally verifiable, and is recognized. The total mass of the bound nucleons is less than the total mass of those same nucleons when unbound, and this fact is widely known and accepted.

A single white crow is sufficient to prove that not all crows are black. Hence a single experimental proof of mass-energy "loss" and negative energy states establishes that negative energy and negative mass are real. Indeed, every photon absorption by mass and every photon emission by masstime prove the same point universally: mass is a variable. The same assembly of protons and neutrons in a nucleus, having lost mass, also has "lost" some of the gravity that the positive masses of those unbound protons and neutrons would otherwise produce. Therefore, there is an appropriate amount of "negative gravity" already acting in conjunction with positive gravity, in every atomic nucleus. It is associated with the negative energy states of the bound nucleons in every nucleus.

Consistent with the initial quotations and comments at the beginning of this chapter, we present an interpretation by which we can understand some of the major novel phenomena that arise in laboratory experiments with COP>1.0 electromagnetic systems, including COP»1.0 systems.

We propose that COP»1.0 EM interactions are widespread in highly energetic astronomical interactions {572} and even in highly energetic phenomena on Earth, when the supersystem changes are also accounted.265 We argue that novel negative energy phenomenology — such as encountered in the COP>1.0 experiments by Magnetic Energy Ltd. in

265 As an example, in looking at sprites and other such sharp electrical discharge phenomena, we may be observing the prompt decay of COP»1.0 interactions which were self-initiated in the atmosphere.

various versions of the COP>1.0 motionless electromagnetic generator (MEG) {573, 574}, by Bedini {575} in his induction of negative resistor actions inside the batteries of battery-powered COP>1.0 EM systems, and by Sweet and the present author in experiments with the Sweet COP» 1.0 vacuum triode amplifier system {576} — is also generated in these C0P»1.0 highly energetic astronomical interactions, yielding the same kind of negative energy and negative energy currents.

This Dirac hole negative energy generation of C0P»1.0 EM processes is proposed as the mechanism which directly produces the negative energy fields and potentials that generate the mysterious antigravity accelerating the expanding universe {577}. This is a reasonable assumption, even though it is against the received view, because it is based on some laboratory experiments, not just theory. It also is the unexpected effect of the cosmological constant introduced by Einstein {578}, and it is consistent with Zeldovich's demonstration that the energy density associated with Einstein's repulsive cosmological constant is — or is associated with — vacuum energy.266 The received view is not based on direct experiments with C0P>1.0 EM systems, but only on C0P<1.0 EM systems. Until the received view is broader based, it does not adequately represent nature. Hence it does not represent a valid refutation of experimental negative energy systems producing antigravity processes.

In Bedini's experiments and in the MEG experiments, antigravity is essentially absent or so small as to be nearly nondetectable. However, these experiments generally have COP of 1.5 to 4.0, mostly, and sometimes 10 or 12 (we have experimented up to 20 or more stably, and unstably at nearly 100). Hence the Dirac hole current is relatively small in them, since the magnitude of the Dirac current is a function of (COP - 1).

Sweet's COP > 1,500,000 experiments produced a very large flow of negative energy back across the system, substantially curving the local spacetime and reducing the weight of the system on the laboratory bench. Figure 6-7 shows the first Sweet device, which produced six watts output in open-loop operation. Figure 6-8 shows a later Sweet device which

266 Believed to have been demonstrated in 1967. But check Ya. B. Zeldovich and A. A. Starobinsky, "Particle creation and vacuum polarization in an anisotropic gravitational field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz, Vol. 61, 1971, p. 2161 (Sov. Phys. - JETP, Vol. 34, 1972, p. 1159); Ya. B. Zeldovich, "Vacuum theory — A possible solution to the singularity problem of cosmology," Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, vol. 133, Mar. 1981, p. 479-503. Translation in Soviet Physics — Uspekhi, vol. 24, Mar. 1981, p. 216-230.

produced COP = 1,500,000 and was pushed past that COP to produce the antigravity in the laboratory, smoothly reducing its weight by 90%. Figure 6-9 is a plot of the actual readings taken during the antigravity experiment. Sweet performed the experiment in California, reading off the measurements to me over the phone as he made each one.

Another indication of the negative energy effect present in the output section of the Sweet device was tested by suddenly shorting the output leads. This resulted in instant freezing of moisture from the air, so that the leads were instantly frozen and covered with ice. Contrast this to the normal heating of shorted wires, where the energy is positive.

Sweet never revealed his activation process, whereby he initiated very strong self-oscillation — of the nucleus of the barium atom in barium ferrite magnets — with the local vacuum treated as a semiconductor. One part was known to the present author and another part was known to Rosenthal, a professional test engineer. In addition, how Sweet converted his excessive hole current is not completely clear. It appears that he somehow used his coils in quadrature together with special circuitry to interact the excess hole current into his magnets, directly with the self-oscillating barium nuclei and thence with the other nuclei in his magnets. If so, it created the "rough equivalent" of increasing the associated binding energy offset and locked with concomitant additional local spacetime curvature.

If this speculation is correct, he "locked" the nuclei of his magnets to the local curved spacetime, maintaining the overall local binding energy in the nuclei themselves while producing a great excess of "binding energy" (negative energy) in the immediate vacuum. This would explain the antigravity, and would be consistent with the experimental results as well as the increase in antigravity as the output load of the device was deliberately increased.

We must use the supersystem concept, as in the quoted comment at the beginning of the chapter, to enable a better understanding of these novel phenomena. Together with the Dirac negative energy production and high COP system, the hypothesis of "additional negative energy acting on local spacetime immediate to each nucleus" allows the generation of the observed antigravity to be understood. However, we accent that this mechanism is still a hypothesis, and it must be further substantiated by experiment.

9.7.1 Lattice Holes

In a material conductor or other component of an electromagnetic circuit, the conventional model envisions currents in the Drude electrons as the electrons moving by "hopping" from molecules or atoms in the material lattices into the Drude gas, with each hop leaving behind a positively charged "vacated electron position" called a lattice hole, orjust a "hole". Subsequent Drude electrons are attracted to fall into the holes, etc. This net movement of the hopping electrons down the conductor, etc. comprises the conventional electron current through the conductor. We point out that the actual movement of the electrons in their "hopping" is vastly more energetic than the very feeble net "drift" of the overall ensemble of Drude electrons longitudinally down the wire as current. The energy of the total electron activity ongoing in a simple 1-foot length of copper wire would power a city, if it could all be harnessed and utilized.

At the same time the electrons hop with a slow net progress down the wire, the "holes" in the material lattices are also collectively seen by the external observer as if "slowly changing their net positions" longitudinally in the opposite direction. 0ne speaks of a corresponding "hole current" or "lattice hole current" in the opposite direction to the electron current. However, there are subtle differences in the flow of the two currents, because an electron in the Drude gas is far more kinetic than the positive ion left behind by an electron that has "hopped up into the electron gas". Nonetheless, the positive lattice ions do "rock" physically from the induced forces upon them, as the holes are opened and filled. In conventional electrical power systems, this equal and opposite energy reaction in the ions of the lattice materials, induced by the applied fields, is usually ignored. In most classical EM power system theory the holes and their "composite equal and opposite energy and work in the system" are also ignored, except in semiconductors and semiconductor circuits.

9.7.2 Newton's Third Law Is Accounted in the Supersystem

Because half the EM energy and work in the circuit is usually ignored (e.g., in the Maxwell-Heaviside-Lorentz standard equations), electrodynamics is said to be free from Newton's third law reaction. This may be a non sequitur, and it follows from the assumption that — for an EM wave, field, or potential in space — no interaction exists with the active vacuum or with the curvature of spacetime. In fact, those reactions do exist in the supersystem. The field, wave, and potential do indeed interact with both the quantum mechanical vacuum and the general relativistic spacetime.

Indeed, the field, wave, and potential may be said to identically be changes induced in general relativistic spacetime. The absence of the "transmitting" physical system leaves us with the remaining two components of the supersystem, each of which extends to infinity. Again, Figure 9-1 shows the actual interactions (the supersystem) and Figure 9-2 shows the erroneous and arbitrary "kill of the supersystem" by standard classical electrodynamics.

When higher group symmetry electrodynamics such as O(3) is applied, then the interactions between the three parts of the supersystem emerge and must be accounted. This is particularly true of COP>1.0 EM systems. However, as Finster points out {564}, the Dirac sea effects exist wherever there are EM fields, potentials, and waves. We add that curved spacetime effects also exist wherever there are EM fields, potentials, and waves. And wherever Dirac sea effects exist, or wherever curved spacetime exists, then there the local vacuum and local spacetime interact with each other.

However, as we shall point out, usually most of the Dirac sea hole effects can be neglected in COP<1.0 systems and in most lower gain COP>1.0 systems because of the time-energy aspects. For COP»1.0 EM systems, the time-energy aspects are partially reversed, and instead of carrying the hole effects away from the system, the time-force from system output to input forces the Dirac sea holes to flow back in the local vacuum across the system from its output to its input. This flow constitutes an additional "load" appearing in the input section and requiring additional electron current from the external power supply to fill the holes. If the power supply does not furnish sufficient electrons to fill the hole current at the input section of the system, then the unfilled hole current passes back into the feeder line toward the external power supply, and even into the distant power supply itself. In its progress, it eats incoming current all along the way, requiring that more current be furnished by the distant generators.

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