## Remarks on the Observed Acceleration of the Expanding Universe

As a candidate for dark negative energy, the present author has proposed vacuum negative energy and currents in curved spacetime regions partially containing excess empty Dirac sea holes as well as normal filled Dirac sea holes. The process by which these excess Dirac holes are produced has been advanced, and is supported by at least one dramatic experiment. One result of such "negative energy areas" of negative spacetime curvature would be "jumps" increasing the velocity of light and high-energy particles traversing these altered regions of spacetime. In fact, there is some evidence for just such jumps, according to a hypothesis by Richard Lieu of the University of Alabama in Huntsville {580a, 580b}. Otherwise, high-energy particles produced in distant processes in the cosmos would not be detected on earth, but would be annihilated in highly energetic collisions.

The departure of large-scale spacetime from homogeneity would also result in some loss of correlation in the presently fitted red shift versus distance relationship. Again, there is tentative indication that such may prove to be the case. The most distant galaxy recently detected has a red shift of 6.56, which — assuming homogeneity of space — implies lookback of 14 billion years or so.2 (conventional view) Best estimates of the age of the universe based on the Big Bang assumption is some 14.7 billion years. It would seem that 0.7 billion years is a very short time for that observed galaxy to have formed. If even more distant galaxies are observed with larger telescopes to become available, then by the redshift correlation to homogeneous space one would be observing galaxies "before the beginning of the universe" — an obvious non sequitur. It appears that the redshift correlation to velocity and distance, as well as the homogeneity of space and in fact the Big Bang itself— are already in some difficulties and may be in serious trouble in the near future.

The empty Dirac sea 4-holes in the vacuum are special "Dirac negative action quanta" and the holes and their dynamics form negative action potentials, currents, and fields. This type of vacuum condition containing some empty Dirac sea holes is referred to as a Dirac-polarized vacuum.

However, we do not envision the Dirac-polarized vacuum as just simple static polarization, but as possessing rich dynamics such as negative energy currents, potentials, fields, waves, etc. including in the time-energy medium in the time domain. We also include the interaction of the dynamic Dirac-polarized vacuum with spacetime.

267I am indebted to Prof. Stanley Jeffers for this information, in his E-mail discussions with the Alpha Foundation's Institute for Advanced Study fellows. Dr. David Roscoe contributed the fact that the Big Bang theory has so many parameters that nearly anything can be "fitted in". But he also pointed out that W. M. Napier, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 310, 1996, p. 353 gives a very thorough analysis of the quantized cz phenomenon, which does present a difficult obstacle to Big Bang theory. Napier is the originator of the cometary catastrophe theory of biological extinction. One way or another, the theory of the Big Bang is in trouble, even though many theorists are still complacent about it.

Due to ongoing COP»1.0 processes involved in highly energetic astronomical phenomena, Dirac sea 4-hole regions and dynamics are believed to occur and exist in the vacuum across the observable universe. These occur especially in appreciably curved spacetime regions with large tempic potential gradients and thus large time-forces across the region.268 The 4-holes and 4-hole currents in the vacuum are generated in great quantity in large cosmic explosions. Also, the energetic fluctuations of the local vacuum energy can separate a Dirac hole from its occupying electron by lifting the electron (pair production), and so can a curved spacetime. In a properly curved spacetime, fluctuation can lift an electron from a hole, and enter a stationary state by accommodating reaction of the local spacetime curvature. In that case, hole and electron go their separate ways. The hole and that or another electron may later recombine, or in sufficient local spacetime curvature, they can remain apart. We point out that every positive energy electron is accompanied by an appropriate local curvature of spacetime that prevents the accoutrement of a free Dirac sea hole,269 and thus prevents the electron from disappearing.

The more energetic the local region, the more severe and violent are local spacetime curvatures in that region, and — in our view — the more frequent the occurrence of COP»1.0 interactions producing significant Dirac 4-hole currents, negative energy EM fields and potentials, etc. Indeed, the measurements that yielded the accelerating expansion of the universe were measurements of the relative velocities existing with stellar explosions known as type la supernovae. In our view, in explosions of such violent nature — particularly including in optically active gases such as where gamma ray bursters form — an appreciable fraction of the hole currents are transduced into positive energy electron currents. This produces — at least for a finite time — a net positive feedback, self-powering COP»1.0 phenomenon, resulting in very rapid asymptotic

268 We also conjecture that these regions may account for a tentatively observed slight change in the fine structure constant, but leave that to the advanced theorists to validate or falsify.

269 This needs a bit of modification. Rigorously, the so-called "isolated" observable electron is clustered around by virtual positrons (Dirac sea 4-holes) in the vacuum. So a positron influence is present, though from virtual positrons instead of observable positrons. The magnitude of both the positive charge and the internal or "bare" negative charge is infinite. The difference, however, is finite and is the "observed" magnitude of the observable central charge. There is thus a net observed shielding of the bare charge of the electron, and this is taken into account to yield the observed charge of the electron.

output energy increase. This is what we have hypothesized as producing the gamma ray burster itself. Quenching of this asymptotic rise in COP occurs only after the physical geometry of the "closed-looping" gas particles is broken a short time later. The maximum output energy is determined by a function of the rate at which the geometry is broken and the corresponding rate at which damping of the asymptotic rise and quenching occurs. The afterglow remaining in the gas is due to the extra positive energy produced in it by the transduction of negative energy into positive energy during the asymptotic rise of the self-powering burster, with excess positive energy being absorbed in the gas while the burster magnitude is rising. After damping and quenching, the gas has been heated (that is how the geometry was disturbed in the first place, to produce damping and then quenching). Re-ignition can occur whenever a new close-looping COP»1.0 situation spontaneously occurs. As in the gamma burster, this can often happen as the disrupted geometry of the gases stabilizes.

All 3-space EM energy comes from the time domain, as previously developed. In the more violent positive energy COP»1.0 regions, there is an increased conversion of time-polarized EM energy into 3-spatial energy and back. On the average there is a higher "time-energy conversion" or "tempic" potential. In those regions, a tempic conversion potential is higher at the higher center magnitude of the spatial energy density. Hence there are strong tempic forces from "inside to outside", providing a "tempic broom" effect to sweep outward the excess Dirac sea holes separated from their electrons in the curved spacetime. The result is the presence of increasingly unoccupied Dirac sea 4-holes toward the outside of violent regions of spacetime, 0 until the effect is overcome by the decreasing spacetime curvature. The 4-hole current radiating out from an asymptotically increasing (exploding) burster provides an asymptotically increasing (exploding) negative energy and negative mass reaction with spacetime. That reaction explosively creates curved spacetime for negative gravity (repulsive gravity), acting upon the local system and upon distant masses as well. The result appears to be the cause of the acceleration of the expanding universe.

It follows that re-ignition of the gamma burster can occur if, as the quenching continues, the geometry stabilizes and reaches another "close-

270 I.e., the violent astronomical phenomena — while generating and increasing are more violent at the center, and less violent at the outside.

looping" positive feedback condition. In fact, just such re-ignition of the gamma burster is very often observed.

Therefore, we hypothesize that the more distant violent astronomical regions have greater amounts of repulsive gravity being produced by their local Dirac-polarized vacua particularly during their explosive asymptotic energy density rise. This produces violent streams or bursts of negative energy outflow, which is equivalent to negative mass outflow and which provides outgoing negative curvature of spacetime (antigravity). At sufficient distance from us, the increasingly earlier, more violent events and resulting greater curved spacetime regions have created sufficient cumulated Dirac-polarized vacua to override the normal attractive gravity between galaxies, etc. and produce net repulsive gravity. This results in observed distant acceleration of the expanding universe {581a-581f}.

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