Resolving the Energy Conservation Problem in Cold Fusion

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When transduction is involved, standard "transverse EM waves only" computations will seemingly yield violation of energy conservation — e.g., from the emission of excess heat. That is an erroneous interpretation; energy overall is conserved, but some of the unaccounted time-energy flow is transduced into 3-spatial transverse photon energy dissipation. Neither 3-spatial energy nor mass-energy nor time-energy alone, or in any pairing, need be individually conserved; only the combined total energy of all three energy components is conserved. This resolves the present major "sticking point" between the cold fusion researchers and the conventional "transverse wave" nuclear and electrodynamic communities regarding energy conservation difficulties and perpetual motion accusations. Those making the accusations and those defending against them are both using only a special-case conservation of energy law, and a more general law is required.

Let t = time in seconds, and W= energy in joules. Rounding the speed of light to 3 x 108 meters/sec, the energy WTW emerging as transverse wave EM energy in 3-space by the transduction of time into 3-space energy is approximately sec = c 9xl016 joules [3]

Let us present the new energy conservation law in slightly different form. Let WTW = energy measured in spatial energy form, conveniently taken as transverse wave (TW) EM energy. Let Wm = energy in mass form (energy compressed by c2). Let Wt = energy in time form (energy compressed by c2 ).The present conservation of energy law is

The new extended conservation of energy law is

The conventional particle physics accounting will see only

The conventional particle physics accounting will see only

The conventional accountant will be unable to see

The conventional accountant will be unable to see

so he will observe that the experimenter is reporting that [Wrw+Wmh* [WTW+Wm]2

which in his lexicon is a violation of the conservation of energy law itself. In short, he will identify it as a typical example of a claimed perpetual motion machine or interaction. Then the defender of the faith will wax eloquent, applying labels such as "perpetual motion nonsense", "voodoo science," etc. He himself is practicing a hoary old "voodoo" science and ignoring newer science. None of these defenders of the faith even know what powers an electromagnetic circuit or how it is that every little charge in the universe is able to continuously pour out observable EM energy in all directions, with no observable EM energy input.

On the other hand, a reasoned response will be given by real scientists still following scientific method, when faced with the numerous replicated successful experiments. The scientific method insists on the absolute priority of the replicable experiment over the predictions of any theory. Consequently, such reasonable scientists will advise that the protagonists cease their vitriolic rhetoric and let real science take its course; i.e., let further experiments confirm or refute reported successful results of cold fusion experiments.302

302 Precisely such a reasoned response by chief editor Donald Kennedy of the journal Science has recently been given, providing a breath of fresh scientific air into an attempt by "defenders of the conventional faith" to destroy publication of important experimental results in sonoluminescence. The article which courageous editor Kennedy approved for publication — over intense objections of the professional critics — is R. P. Taleyarkhan et al., "Evidence for Nuclear Emissions During Acoustic Cavitation," Science, Vol. 295, Mar. 8, 2002, p. 1868-1873. We heartily commend Editor Kennedy for this classic example of how science should be conducted — so that experiments, not prevailing dogma, determine what is valid and what is invalid.

What the professional skeptic will not see is that his own expression of the conservation of energy law has been incomplete, and that it is his own inadequate "measurement yardstick" assumption that is now in error. The extended conservation of energy law of course still holds, but the conventional special case law is violated because its fundamental assumption — that time is not transduced to spatial energy in the experiments —has been violated in the experiment.

Indeed, with the publication of the work of Evans et al., experimentally proving the fluctuation theorem and the high probability of time reversal zones appearing for short but significant periods at up to micron levels, the second law of thermodynamics has been rigorously proven to be violated. Hence the conventional scientific community's rather dogmatic objection to the extra heat of cold fusion interactions is no longer scientifically justifiable.

Understanding of the extended conservation of energy law and the permissible violation of the second law of thermodynamics resolves the present thorny dissension within the scientific community over the excess spatial energy produced by cold fusion. It also resolves the issue of what could possibly be a source of such intense energy density as is required for nuclear transmutation reactions.

Any ordinary system is indeed an open system, freely and continuously exchanging energy with its temporal environment as well as the seething active vacuum.3 If the system is in temporal energy equilibrium in that exchange, then the present restricted conservation of "spatial and mass" energy law applies and one does not have to consider the interactions between supersystem components. If the system is placed in disequilibrium with its temporal energy environment, then supersystem components interact asymmetrically and the extended conservation of energy law applies. In that case, excess spatial energy can be and will appear in the system whenever time transduction into spatial energy is occurring.

303 But see our Appendix A. Present thermodynamics rather inanely defines a "closed" system as one where no mass exchange crosses its boundary with its environment, but energy exchange can and does. In that view, a "closed" system can be far from equilibrium in its energy exchange with its active environment, and thus demonstrate the five magic attributes of such disequilibrium systems. In this book we have deliberately chosen to treat a "closed" system as one in which neither energy nor mass exchange crosses the system boundary — which classical thermodynamics refers to as an "isolated" system. We explain all this (and why) in Appendix A.

The implications of cold fusion energy transduction are that

(1) Time is being "burned" or transduced as a "fuel" and source of energy,

(2) Transduction of only one microsecond per second will yield 9xl010 watts steadily. That's 90,000 megawatts of energy per second — the equivalent of 90 large 1,000-megawatt power plants — if all the transduced energy were collected and used to power loads with 100% efficiency.

(3) Thousands of new nuclear reactions are made possible and feasible by local transduction of time-energy into 3-spatial EM energy.

(4) Appropriate capture and use of a portion of the excess energy can be accomplished to power loads.

Even if we capture and utilize only 1% of the transduced time-energy to power the loads, where the time-energy to spatial energy transduction is only the transduction of 1 microsec/sec, that system will produce the normal EM energy to power 900 megawatts in the load. That's almost 90% of the capability of a modern 1,000-megawatt power plant. That is quite a respectable electrical power system. It only requires the transduction and "burning" of one microsecond of time per second, without any nuclear wastes or hydrocarbon byproducts.

As can be seen, transducing time into energy is by far the most efficient way to go to develop new power plants for the future. This is particularly true since every charge in the universe already transduces time-energy flow into spatial EM energy flow. Indeed, we may consider that the negative charge transduces time-energy flow into the spatial outflow of EM positive energy, while the positive charge transduces negative time- . energy flow into an outflow of EM negative energy. The process is useful not only for power applications, but also for transport applications as we briefly pointed out in Chapter 8.

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