Setting the Stage for Understanding Overunity Power Systems

[Dissipative structures] "This leads precisely to a distinction between 'equilibrium structures' [which may be understood in terms ofclassical equilibrium thermodynamics] and 'dissipative structures'. The latter are formed and maintained through the exchange of energy and matter in non-equilibrium conditions. " [I. Prigogine] {236} [Internal brackets added for clarity.]

[The energy in space itself] "What might appear to be empty space is, therefore, a seethingferment of virtual particles. A vacuum is not inert and featureless, but alive with throbbing energy and vitality. A real'particle such as an electron must always be viewed against this background offrenetic activity. When an electron moves through space, it is actually swimming in a sea of ghost particles ofall varieties — virtual leptons, quarks, and messengers, entangled in a complex melee. The presence ofthe electron will distort this irreducible vacuum activity, and the distortion in turn reacts back on the electron. Even at rest, an electron is not at rest: it is being continually assaulted by all manner of other particles from the vacuum. " [Paul Davies] {237}

[Modernizing the fluid analogy of EM]. The intensity of the vacuum virtual particle flux may be treated as the intensity of a potential, thus by analogy corresponding to pressure in a fluid. Polarity (charge) is a process for establishing a change in the intensity ofthe vacuum potential — and thus a change in the ambient pressure of the vacuum fluid. Difference between vacuum pressures at two separatedpoints creates a force upon any charge placed between those two points. Just as a differential in pressure between points in afluid induces currents, a differential in vacuum pressure induces energyflow currents in the vacuum fluid, which are called fields'. All

EM circuits, charges, potentials, and forces in electrodynamics involve altering the vacuum to include altering its pressure and thereby producing the forces that the resulting pressure gradients (fields) induce upon charges. All observable EM energy in space is EM energy intercepted and collected on charges, and it comes from the vacuum via these fundamental vacuum-engineering dynamics." [T. E. Bearden, private communication to a colleague, 2001].

[Impact of EM energy from the vacuum.] "Ifthey [quantum fluctuations ofvacuum] can be [tapped], the impact upon our civilization will be incalculable. Oil, coal, nuclear, hydropower, would become obsolete — and so would many ofour worries about environmental pollution." "Don't sell your oil shares yet — but don't be surprised if the world again witnesses the four stages of response to any new and revolutionary development: 1. It's crazy! 2. It may be possible — so what? 3. I said it was a good idea all along. 4. I thought of it first." [Arthur C. Clarke] {238}.

[Broken symmetry of opposite charges.] "Since nonobservables imply symmetry, any discovery of asymmetry must imply some observable. The experiment ofWu, Ambler, Hayward, Hoppes and Hudson... established the asymmetry between the positive and negative signs of electricity." [T. D. Lee] {239}.

[On implications of asymmetry of opposite charges of a dipole.] "In particle physics, the proven asymmetry of opposite charges establishes that the source dipole — with opposite charges on each end— is a broken symmetry in the violent virtual photon flux ofvacuum. The dipole charges constantly receive and absorb virtual photon energyfrom the seething vacuum, and re-emit that excitation energy. By the very definition of broken symmetry, some ofthis absorbed virtual energy must be integrated into observable 3-space EMenergy, and emitted by the dipole in observable form, in all directions in 3-space. Hence there is a rigorous basis for the source dipole extracting virtual EM energyfrom the vacuum, integrating it, and continuously pouring it out in observable and usable EM energy form. It has been in particle physics since 1957, being certified by the award of the Nobel Prize to Lee and Yang in that year. " [T. E. Bearden, private communication to a colleague, 1995.]

[On powering an electromagnetic circuit] "In the United States there is not now, and there never has been, a single electrical engineering department, professor, or textbook that knows and teaches what directly powers an electromagnetic circuit. Neither is it in any publication of the National Academy ofSciences, National Science Foundation, National Academy ofEngineering, Department ofEnergy, or the great national laboratories. Yet the proofthat every circuit is powered by EM energy extracted directlyfrom the vacuum has been in particle physics for 45 years, since the award of the Nobel Prize to Lee and Yang in 1957, following the experimental proof by Wu et al. earlier that same year. " [T. E. Bearden, private correspondence, 2002].

4.1 Introduction

In this chapter, we present a selection of potential overunity notions, some inventions, and some experiments. Its purpose is to show some of the more relevant work that has been done, and hopefully to stimulate new thinking by the interested reader. Much of the work addressed is by other inventors and scientists, and we give an appropriate commentary from our viewpoint. Not all the concepts presented can be clearly explained, though some can and are. This is not intended to be a "kit of parts" or an "assembly instructions" type of presentation. For that, the interested researcher will have to rely on his or her own ingenuity and lots of bench experiments, because no such "kit of parts with instructions" for C0P>1.0 electrical power systems exists at present {240, 241}.

Because of the broken symmetry of its opposite charges, we do know that any dipolarity — such as a permanent magnet, a charged flat-plate capacitor, an electret, or a simple EM scalar potential — continuously pours out EM energy circulation extracted from the vacuum. E.g., see Figure 4-1, which shows a very simple "free energy generator" that will generate a flow of EM energy indefinitely, even by ordinary U(1) electrodynamics theory (by standard Poynting theory). E.g., quoting Buchwald {242}:

' '[Poynting's result] implies that a charged capacitor in a constant magnetic field which is not parallel to the electric field is the seat ofenergy flows even though all macroscopic phenomena are static."

This is easily seen by applying the standard Poynting formula, S = E x H. With the H-field of the magnet at right angles to the E-field of the capacitor or electret, the Poynting flow of energy S is maximized and orthogonal to E and to H.

The problem is not in extracting energy - even enormous energy — from the vacuum The problem is collecting and using the energy to power loads, without destroying the source dipole

magnet

EM energy continually flovre from this "static" arrangement, without any further input of energy by the engineer magnet

EM energy continually flovre from this "static" arrangement, without any further input of energy by the engineer

Figure 4-1 Poynting generator providing endless EM energyflowfrom the vacuum.

Buchwald errs, e.g., in assuming the macroscopic phenomena are static. They are not; they are highly dynamic in the same sense that a perfect macroscopic whirlpool in a river, seemingly static, nonetheless involves a continuous flow of water through it and a continuous dynamics. So far as can be observed, it appears there is no such thing as a truly "static" object. As an example, just to "exist" an object must "travel through time", which is itself a special kind of dynamics in the time domain.

A beautiful explanation of what is meant by "static" is given by Van Flandern91:

"To retain causality, we must distinguish two distinct meanings of the term 'static'. One meaning is unchanging in the sense ofno moving parts. The other meaning is sameness from moment to moment by continual replacement of all movingparts. We can visualize this difference by thinking ofa waterfall. A frozen waterfall is static in the first sense, and a flowing waterfall is static in the second sense. Both are essentially the same at every moment, yet the latter has moving parts capable of transferring momentum, and is made of entities that propagate.

Now suppose that the capacitor in Figure 4-1 is rotated until E and H are either parallel or anti-parallel. In that case, the Poynting theory predicts zero EM energy flow. That is an incomplete assessment; it means that there is no overt field energy flow. There is, however, still quite a lot of covert or "infolded" field energy flow ongoing anyway, inside the static fields E and H themselves.92 To see this, we first turn to the static potentials.

Between the charged plates of the capacitor or electret, there exists an electrostatic scalar potential <j). Between the polar ends of the permanent magnet, there exists a magnetostatic scalar potential We may independently decompose both and via Whittaker decomposition {243}, applying a necessary correction {244} to Whittaker's interpretation. Then in all space surrounding the two dipoles, we have a hidden harmonic set of bidirectional longitudinal EM wavepair flows of energy comprising each of the static potentials <|> and ([filling all space93 around the assembly in Figure 4-1. Each of those potentials and <i> is formed of a combination of scalar (time-polarized) and longitudinal photon pairs, as strongly argued

91 Tom Van Flandern, "The speed of gravity — what the experiments say," Phys. Lett. A., Vol. 250, Dec. 21, 1998, p. 8-9.

92 Indeed, by the asymmetry of its opposite charges, each of the dipoles is continuously pouring out EM energy extracted from the seething vacuum.

93 In the conventional view. We corrected that view in {12}, to agree with quantum field theory and to use a cause and effect instead of the two effects used by Whiltaker.

by Mandl and Shaw {245} and as previously discussed in an earlier chapter. Further, each of the "static" fields can be decomposed into two scalar potential functions, as shown in 1904 by Whittaker {246}. Then each of the base scalar potentials further decomposes into the set of time-polarized EM wave and longitudinal EM wave pairs. The result is that every "static" field or potential in the universe is actually a set of longitudinal EM wave dynamics.

Further, in each coupled Whittaker wavepair as reinterpreted, there is perfect correlation between the time-domain EM energy wave (scalar or time-polarized EM wave) and the 3-space longitudinal EM wave. So even a "static" EM field, such as from the permanent magnet and from the charged capacitor or electret, does involve an enormous number of hidden internal EM energy flows in longitudinal and scalar EM waveform.94

94 One of the great omissions of modern Western electrodynamics is the failure to follow up on direct engineering of this "vast, internal, infolded, far more fundamental" scalar and longitudinal electrodynamics hidden inside all present overt EM potentials and transverse EM fields and waves. Russian secret weapon scientists under the former KGB called this internal electrodynamics the "information content of the field" and have strongly weaponized it. A deception plan has been used to successfully convince the West that the Russians are speaking only of conventional spectral analysis. Use of this internal EM structuring, in the form of longitudinal or scalar wave interferometry, formed the first giant superweapons deployed by the former Soviet Union in 1963. To see a proof that ordinary EM fields and waves and potentials can be formed at a distance, arising out of the local spacetime in the interference zone, see M. W. Evans et al., {79}. Longitudinal EM waves easily pass through the entire earth and ocean relatively undiminished, since mass is mostly empty space filled with fields, potentials, and waves — i.e., filled with incredible numbers and bundles and dynamics of longitudinal and scalar EM waves. Mass is thus a great superhighway for the passage of longitudinal EM waves, and longitudinal interferometry can be performed right through the earth and ocean, on the other side of the earth from the transmitters. Such interferometers can also easily focus inside the earth or beneath the surface of the ocean. Hence in April 1963 the first giant Soviet LW interferometer deployed was used to kill the U.S.S. Thresher beneath the ocean, off the East Coast of the U.S. Intense production of EM signals — emerging everywhere in the space in that underwater interference zone placed around the submarine — filled the sub and its electronic controls. This jammed the electronic controls of the sub, rendering it helpless. The hapless sub then sank to crush depth and imploded. The signatures are clearly present in the jamming and cessation of multiple electronic systems functioning in the sub's surface companion, the U.S.S. Skylark (which was in a sort of surrounding "splatter" zone and survived because it was not individually targeted). Today at least 10 nations have scalar or longitudinal wave interferometer weapons, to one extent or another, other nations are working on them, and the Yakuza also has them. These were apparently the weapons

Ultimately there is no frozen waterfall, but only the dynamic waterfall always reappearing the same but filled with dynamic movement and energy flow.

These latter EM energy flows infolded inside the scalar potentials and the fields exist for a single charged capacitor or electret alone, or a single magnet alone. They also exist for any two points in a circuit that have differing electrical or magnetic potentials with respect to the ambient vacuum potential (energy density). This latter fact, of course, was part of the secret of Kron's open path. Indeed, every dipolarity in the universe — between any two potentials or any two differing charges anywhere — is an open path and an energy flow source. E.g., quoting Kron {247}:

"...the missing concept of "open-paths" (the dual of "closed-paths") was discovered, in which currents could be made to flow in branches that lie between any set of two nodes. (Previously— following Maxwell— engineers tied all of their open-paths to a single datum-point, the 'ground'). That discovery ofopen-paths established a second rectangular transformation matrix... which created lamellar'currents... " "A network with the simultaneous presence of both closed and open paths was the answer to the author'syears-longsearch. "

As can be seen, Kron had discovered how to create currents — currents could be made to flow — in individual branches between any two nodes in the circuit, physically connected or not. We point out that deliberate use ofKron's "open path" in a network circuit constitutes a strong violation of the standard closed current loop circuit's self-enforcement of the Lorenz/Lorentz symmetrical regauging condition. Hence it is a magnificent method for achieving C0P>1.0 circuits. It is the belief of this confirmed in 1997 by Secretary of Defense Cohen in these words: "Others are engaging even in an eco-type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves... So there are plenty of ingenious minds out there that are at workfinding ways in which they can wreak terror upon other nations...It's real, and that's the reason why we have to intensify our efforts." [Secretary of Defense William Cohen at an April 1997 DoD counterterrorism conference sponsored by former Senator Sam Nunn. Quoted from DoD News Briefing, Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen, Q&A at the Conference on Terrorism, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and U.S. Strategy, Universityof Georgia, Athens, Apr. 28, 1997.]. As the reader can see, the Cold War was not so "cold" after all. This mere "tip of the iceberg" should also give the reader a little more insight as to why a war on terrorism is so necessary to all civilized nations.

author that such "open path" functioning in his patented circuits was part of Tesla's secret, though he did not think of it in those terms. However, Tesla's ability to shuttle potential energy independently in his circuits — invisible to a tensor analysis — was rigorously shown by Barrett {124}. Barrett extended the method and obtained two patents in the field of communications {286a, 286b}.

Thus the COP>1.0 problem is not in the part or function (the dipole or the charge) that extracts real EM energy flow from the vacuum. That is extraordinarily simple and straightforward. Engineers and scientists have been using it for two centuries without understanding what they were doing. Every charge, dipole, charged capacitor, electret, and permanent magnet already continuously extracts EM energy from the vacuum. The two-fold COP> 1.0 problem is in (i) separately intercepting and catching (in an external circuit) some ofthe copious free flowing energyfrom the "extractor", and then (ii) separately dissipating that collected energy in an external load without killing the "extractor" itself— or at least only killing it more slowly than the load is powered. The most elegant way to violate the closed current loop circuit is with Kron's open path, typified by Tesla/Barrett potential energy shuttling. Since vector and tensor analysis will not even show it or model it, then a higher group symmetry electrodynamics is imperative in modeling COP>1.0 EM systems and their functions. Much of that work remains to be done.

Our main purpose in this chapter is to point out some selected efforts and approaches by scientists, engineers, and inventors. We will give a brief description and a few details, and leave it to the researcher for further experimentation and reflection. Hopefully, knowing what some others have tried and the results they achieved will prove helpful to the serious researcher.

We also strongly encourage the reader to again read this section after studying Chapter 9. In any COP>1.0 system, the excess energy must come from the "active environment". The active environment of an EM system consists of (i) the active vacuum and its interactions and dynamics, and (ii) the active local spacetime curvatures and their interactions and dynamics. Contrary to naive belief and the received view, overunity electrical power systems — particularly very high COP systems — are neither simple nor easy, but are extraordinarily difficult and highly nonlinear even when their appearance is deceptively simple. Chapter 9 will give a brief expose of some of the difficulties for higher C OP systems. There we will refer again to the intricate circuit analysis work of Gabriel Kron {248}, to Dirac sea electron theory {249} both prior to observation and after observation, and to the need for higher group symmetry O(3) electrodynamics by Evans {250} which is a subset {251} of the electromagnetics used in the unified field theory of Sachs {252}.

Chapter 9 indicates how mathematically complex these systems really are, even when they appear deceptively simple. The phenomenology is highly complex, and it has not yet been scientifically explored because of the erroneous received view that COP>1.0 EM systems are not permitted by Maxwell's theory or the laws of physics. That is a non sequitur. More exactly, they are not permitted in that equilibrium class ofMaxwellian systems described and selected by Lorentz's arbitrary symmetrizing ofthe Maxwell-Heaviside equations, following their previous symmetrizing by Ludwig Valentin Lorenz {253}. Prior to applying the Lorenz-Lorentz symmetrical regauging, the Heaviside equations — which in field form are already a truncation to four vector equations of Maxwell's 20 quaternionlike equations — do prescribe both disequilibrium COP>1.0 and equilibrium C0P<1.0 Maxwellian systems. The variables are not separated (potential formation) and the equations are difficult to solve, usually requiring numerical methods. With Heaviside's truncation and Lorenz-Lorentz regauging applied, the resulting "special case" equations — now for only that class of C0P<1.0 Maxwellian systems that receive and use no net input from their active environment — continue to be used because closed analytical solutions can usually be had and numerical methods can be largely avoided.95

So with tongue in cheek, we humorously remark that C0P>1.0 electrical power systems have not been developed or known because the early scientists were a bit lazy and wished to avoid ubiquitous use of numerical methods. These days, with computers, proper math programs, and sharp

95 For some reason, electrodynamicists ignore the fact that the Lorentz regauging does assume two additional equal and opposite energy exchanges of the system with its external active environment, but carefully selected so that all the excess energy received in the system is purely in the form of a stress potential. Hence this energy continually does internal work on the system to produce additional stress, but cannot translate electrons through an external load to power it. Also, this regauging condition represents an effective rotation of the frame of the described system out of the laboratory frame. To then argue that this severely altered system (increased stress, constant additional internal work being done on the system, frame rotation, altered potential energy) is the same system prior to Lorentz regauging, and that such a system is not receiving excess energy from its active vacuum environment, is naive in the extreme and a non scquitur.

graduate students to easily crunch the numbers, there is no longer any reason for continued arbitrary discard of Maxwellian COP>1.0 systems.

For such reasons, no legitimate theory of C0P> 1.0 EM power systems has been developed, except for light shed by Prigogine {254a-254f} and others {255a-255c} as to the necessary active environment, disequilibrium nature, and disequilibrium thermodynamics of C0P>1.0 systems. Further, the energy flow theory (Poynting's theory) has not been further extended to include the Whittaker decompositions {243, 246} as should long ago have been done. Neither has it been extended to account for the arbitrarily discarded giant Heaviside nondiverged energy flow component.

The researcher should be aware that the energy input to a system is always in the voltage96 (the potential; one input volt of potential will cause one joule of energy to be collected upon each interacting unit point electric charge in the system; one volt of drop in potential results when one joule of collected energy is dissipated per unit point collecting charge in the system.). The fields and their energy are functions of the potentials and their energy, not the other way round. After potentialization of the circuit, the subsequent movement of the potentialized Drude electrons, as current in the system, is connected with (and part of) the dissipation from the circuit of previously collected/intercepted energy from the vacuum.

Saving Power, Saving The World

Saving Power, Saving The World

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Helping Save Power. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To How To Use Renewable Energy As Your Alternative Power Suppliers.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment