Shoulders Electron Cluster Processes

Valone {388} has summarized Ken Shoulders' charge clusters and processes as follows:

"An unusual energy source is the clustering of electrons by a discharge needle into a high density bundle equaling Avogadro's density ofa solid Ken Shoulders has patented a process (Pat. #5,153,901) that produces electron clusters with such high energy density, they equal processes exceeding25,000 degrees Celsius upon impact. Yet, he only uses 20 microjoules to produce the effects. The clusters travel at a maximum of one tenth the speed of light andpenetrate any substance with accuracy and sharp precision. It is similar to xenon clustering techniques currently used at megavoltenergy levels. Low energy nuclear transmutation of the target has also been achieved with this process. Using a deuterium-loaded palladium foil, only the bombardment areas show transmutation into silicon, calcium, and magnesium with electron clusters upon analysis with X-rays. Jin and Fox {389} have postulated that the high velocity electron clusters achieve results similar to accelerators, including penetration ofthe nucleus, with substantially less power. The new physics oflike-charges clustering in bundles under low power conditions opens a wide range of applications including spacecraft maneuvering microthrusters. Overunity efficiency [sic: should be COP] is 9 to 1, or higher.

Ken Shoulders is an accomplished experimental scientist who has discovered and patented many aspects of electron charge clusters, including their COP>1.0 characteristics {390}.

According to his experiments, one of the most remarkable characteristics of these charge clusters seems to be their dramatic reduction of the permittivity of space {391}. Shoulders has noted the remarkable removal Of positive charge during the self-formation process of the clusters {392}. In our opinion, the involvement of the supersystem of these charge clusters is shown by that phenomenon. We hypothesize that an accompanying Dirac hole current is shown by the experimental occasions where — in addition to the Shoulders' negative charge clusters — additional charges unite but show effects of having opposite charge {393}. Such changes would change the permittivity of space, which Shoulders has noted. They could also create a time-reversal zone (TRZ), which would account for the clustering of like charges since in a TRZ the law of attraction and repulsion of charges is reversed. In such a zone, like charges attract and unlike charges repel. This could explain why Shoulders has observed both negative charge clustering and positive charge clustering.

This would also explain the remarkable separation of the positive charges from the negative charges — they are simply repelled by the negative clusters in a TRZ.177 This of course immediately involves curvature of spacetime effects, including local changes in the speed of light etc. As stressed by Shoulders, the entire area cries out for extensive and sophisticated experimental investigation on a continuing basis, as well as some powerful new theoretical work. Shoulders has also noted both "black" and "white" (dark and bright) clusters, including their combination and separation, strongly suggesting Dirac holes as well as the electrons in the charge clusters. He has proposed a form of "inertial propulsion" based on some of the mechanisms and asymmetrical forces observed in his experiments, and such asymmetry is possible in curved local spacetime conditions.

The relation of Shoulders' effects to cold fusion phenomena was shown by an experiment in which a deuteron-loaded palladium cathode was impacted by a charge cluster {394}. An explosive-like reaction occurred, and an X-ray analysis of the impact crater showed a number of elements not seen in the nearby palladium surface away from the impact site. Elements such as oxygen, calcium, silicon, and magnesium were detected in the impact site, but not in the surrounding palladium lattice. We would suggest the presence of TRZ-based nuclear transmutation reactions (via quasi-nucleus formation followed by quark-flipping in nucleons as the

177 Since the same TRZ phenomenon generates specific nuclear transmutation reactions at low spatial energy, explaining the anomalous transmutation of elements in cold fusion electrolyte experiments, a strong indication exists that it is a viable mechanism. In our mechanism proposed for the flow of time, a TRZ is produced for charges whenever antiphoton interactions predominate over photon interactions. This indeed implies a change in the permittivity of the local space, local curvature of spacetime, and local changes in the speed of light — all phenomena Shoulders notes in his experiments.

TRZ decays to a time-forward zone). Additional information on this charge cluster phenomenon has been given by Fox {395}.

Other Shoulders patents are pending and his research is continuing. It is our understanding that at least one application is presently being developed for the market.

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