## Some Additional Foundations Non Sequiturs

Another gross non sequitur is made in calculating the amount of EM energy flow continually being diverged around an intercepting unit static charge at a point in space, from a potential in which that point is located, and then calling this "local intensity" of the collecting interaction the "magnitude of the potential" itself.

44 Rigorously, if one wishes to connect spacetime and mass, spacetime can be interpreted in masstime units, but not mass units And vice versa. Again, masstime mt is as different from mass m as impulse Ft is different from force F.

Figure 2-2 Field and potential are defined in terms of the diversions from themarounda unit point static charge assumed atanyspatial point

Figure 2-2 Field and potential are defined in terms of the diversions from themarounda unit point static charge assumed atanyspatial point

(See Figure 2-2). At best, it is a measure of the local intensity of the diversion ofenergy flow from the "bidirectional" EM longitudinal waves comprising a potential, as they are diverged around the unit point static charge. It is not the magnitude of the entire potential, filling all space, nor does it prescribe the spatial energy magnitude of that entire potential {146}. It is a small energy flow, diverted by an assumed standard fixed charge at a single point in the potential, from the overall energy flows comprising the potential. Calling this little "diversion of a bit of energy" the magnitude of the potential is rather like calling a little whirlpool in a river the "magnitude of the river". Or more exactly, it is like calling the amount of little "swirl diversion of a river's flow" around a standard small fixed rock the "magnitude of the river".

A similar non sequitur exists in the usual calculation of the "field" magnitude at a point, which is not the "entire field entity itself at all. It is merely what is diverged from the "field as it exists in spacetime" at a single point in it, by an assumed fixed standard point charge at that point that is interacting with the field. The field takes into account the patterning of the diverged flow, e.g., the difference in potential (difference in pressure) across the unit point charge. That is not the field itself at all, and the textbooks and dictionaries of physics are completely wrong in calling it such. Again, at best, it is an indication of the field intensity at that point, and the reaction cross section of the field to an assumed unit point static charge. Even that indication of local intensity of the field will change if the intercepting charge is not static but is in resonance, as shown by the Bohren experiment {24}.45

As can be seen from these few examples, a great deal of work needs to be done to clean up the "definitions" promulgated in physics and electrodynamics for more than a century. It is inexplicable46 that this has not long since been accomplished. These errors permeate almost every textbook, and they desperately need correcting. The National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation should fund the best possible effort on this rework of the foundations of physics.

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