Some Instrument Considerations Time Effects

As previously indicated, there are time-domain effects (potentials, forces, and currents) associated with a COP>1.0 EM system, particularly as the COP increases toward COP»1.0. A useful method of indicating time-effects is to utilize a transistor in a circuit capable of measuring recombination time in the transistor.282 NASA has such circuitry available, but I do not have the reference at hand. We leave it as an exercise to the reader to explore that possibility.

For "very large COP" devices, ordinary watches, clocks etc. may be affected. Particularly significant is the slowing of timepieces in the presence of substantial time-domain effects due to substantial negative energy. In addition, for high gain devices (and for some at lower COP), the negative energy charge can build up in the local area, and may then require some days to dissipate. As we stated, in experiments years ago with Frank Golden, we experienced just such alteration of multiple kinds of clocks and watches in an area. It required four days for the negative energy charge in the area to gradually drain off (for the excess Dirac sea holes to gradually be filled with electrons, as the tempic potential gradually returned to normal).

Effects that were even more dramatic were exhibited in experiments conducted by Sid Hurwich in Canada some years ago {587}. In a series of experiments lasting a half-hour, Hurwich inertially jammed a police revolver so that a human finger could not pull its trigger. The watches of the witnesses did not change their setting during that entire half-hour. This cannot be understood by conventional electrical system analysis, but potentially it can be understood by supersystem analysis.

9.15.2 Calorimetry Is Taboo for Overunity System COP Measurement

It is standard dogma that calorimetry is a "true" measurement of power, and is always accurate in the hands of a skilled practitioner. In general, that is true for a COP<1.0 system, where one is concerned only with positive energy in the input and output sections. However, with respect to COP>1.0 systems, nothing could be farther from the truth. Indeed, for a significant COP»1.0 system, a calorimeter is one of the most inaccurate instruments that can possibly be used.

As previously stated, all COP>1.0 EM systems produce a mixture of negative and positive energy in their output section. The higher the COP, the greater the percentage of negative energy and the greater the flux of Dirac 4-holes back to the input section. The output energy, immersed in a calorimeter, will both cool the water with its negative energy output fraction and heat the water with its positive energy output fraction. Hence, the calorimeter will show the difference between the water's simultaneous

282 This suggestion is courtesy of John Schnurer some years ago, and is appreciated.

heating and cooling. If the calorimeter measurement is misinterpreted as the total energy output, this "definitive test" will always erroneously show COP<1.0. After all, it itself already applies the decay mechanism for converting any overunity system to an underunity system.

The only good use of the calorimeter in an overunity EM system is to verify that negative energy is present, when comparing its measurements to more sophisticated electrical measurements of the system. It can be used along with other measurements to ascertain (1) the total energy output, whether negative or positive, (2) the difference in the two forms of energy output and the algebraic sign of the resultant (positive if calorimeter heated, negative if calorimeter cools), and (3) thereby help determine the output's energy fractions (positive energy divided by total energy, negative energy divided by total energy).

Any test group insisting on testing a purported COP>1.0 electrical system with a calorimeter as the definitive statement of energy output is totally devoid of knowledge of COP>1.0 systems and their phenomenology. Usually such "test groups" tend to regard themselves as "measurement experts" (which they well may be, in COP<1.0 positive energy systems!). That does not make the team even minimally knowledgeable or qualified in COP>1.0 system measurement. To the contrary, the team members have zero experience or knowledge of COP>1.0 systems. The proposed test group may consist of physicists, thermodynamicists, electrical engineers, technicians, or all four, but they still will have no knowledge or expertise in COP>1.0 EM power systems unless they have actually worked with such systems before, and at length.283 This is particularly true of COP»1.0 systems. My advice to all COP>1.0 researchers is simply to keep the "calorimeter addicts" out of one's laboratory in the first place.

9.15.3 Other Instrumental aspects.

Here we just point out some simple and obvious things, familiar to the experienced researcher but sometimes not appreciated by the novice. One is usually dealing with nonsinusoidal waves, pulses, spikes and the like. As is well known, RMS meters are useless for measuring such nonsinusoidal electrical entities, since they are designed and calibrated to measure sine

283 To date, we have found none who have actually worked with COP>1.0 electrical systems. We have, however, found quite a few who, though totally inexperienced with COP>1.0 systems and not knowledgeable, have regarded themselves as "real experts" in such systems. They claim to already know how COP>1.0 systems work and behave, and assume just ordinary electrical system phenomena.

waves only, or to measure DC. One must use a good differential sampling scope with multiple synchronized channels, with professional software to perform accurate integration under the curve, and with special differential probes for the scope. Simultaneous triggering of the multiple measurement channels on the same time line is required. The necessary high quality probe set may cost as much or more than the oscilloscope!

Dirac sea hole currents are generally not separately measurable, so one measures where the hole currents are not significantly present. Results may be compared to measurements where the hole currents are known to be present. When directly measuring hole currents, the conventional meters often read "backwards" and interpret a negative energy output at the system output section as subtracted from the positive energy, and interpret a negative energy output at the input section of the system as additional input electron currents from the external power supply. If the electron currents from the external power supply are not present, then measuring hole currents will draw electron currents from the power system inside the meter itself, resulting in a "backward measurement". Again, the meter actually will measure a real electron current, whether from the external

power supply or from a conversion within the meter itself.

Recombination time in semiconductors can sometimes be used in instrumented circuits to differentiate between negative hole current and electron current, by observing the change in recombination time due to the negative energy currents. It will differ from the change in recombination time due to positive energy currents.

Again, what is needed in the field is a set of solid, reliable instrumentation specifically developed for these peculiar measurement phenomena involving both positive energy and negative energy. To my knowledge, no such thoroughly designed and tested instrument package presently exists. Further, there are not even any standards for such, since there are apparently no standards for negative energy measurement at all.

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