Some Resulting Low Spatial Energy Nuclear Reactions

Refer again to paragraph 10.4 above. Summarizing: The formation of time-reversal zones (TRZs) is what enables the appearance of the new nuclear reactions in the electrolyte in cold fusion experiments. It does this by changing the Coulomb barrier between like charged ions into a Coulomb attractor. Further, the rate at which TRZs form and decay in the solution is a function of the frequency and intensity of the scalar interferometry from the loaded palladium lattice. This means that the appearance of the new nuclear interactions in the electrolyte is also a function of the degree of loading of the palladium lattice, as well as the "double surface" interferometry preparation of the palladium, its cracks, etc. These are the major variables. Once the major variables provide the solution for significant formation of TRZs, then the following reactions can and do appear.

The sample reactions we present here are just a few of the thousands of new reactions possible. These example reaction products have been found in a great many successful cold fusion experiments in various laboratories around the world. Some 600+ successful experiments have now been done, and a sizable literature has built up and continues to be built up on the experiments and their results.

For our sample reactions, the primary mechanism of interest consists of several parts:

(i) Formation of a TRZ, in which two positive ions (we shall look at H+ and D+), now attract each other. Also, the gluon forces in the proton and neutron, in the ions of interest, are significantly lessened, so that the quarks in each proton and neutron are very much more loosely bound. Consequently, decay from an excited state by quark flipping to turn a proton into a neutron or vice versa becomes an attractive option. The strong force is therefore reduced in radius.

(ii) Two positive ions now attract each other so closely that each enters the edge of the weakened strong force region of the other. This forms a quasi-nucleus because of the limited involvement of the weakened strong force.

(iii) The other ions in solution surrounding the TRZ immediately move (as soon as the TRZ is formed) to negate the TRZ and decay it back to a time-forward zone (TFZ). This action initiates the decay of the TRZ.

(iv) As the TRZ lessens and then turns back into a TFZ, the strong force expands its size faster than the novel Coulomb "like attracting like" force reduces and reverses.

(v) The rapidly expanding strong force of each of the two ions in the quasi-nucleus fully envelops the other ion, increasing the disequilibrium of the two-ion quasi-nucleus. A condition is reached where the most probable mode of decay is the flipping of one quark in one of the positive nuclei.

(vi) The quark flips, turning that H+ ion into a neutron n. This is a quasi-nucleus of deuterium (D+), still in an excited state but with less excess potential energy in the excited state. At this point, the TRZ is vanishing and the TFZ state is returning.

(vii) As the TRZ vanishes and TFZ state increases back to normal, the most probable mode of decay increasingly is to a full deuterium nucleus. Hence the H+ and n simply draw completely into normal deuterium binding position, bound by the normal strong force. This constitutes a normal D+ ion, now existing in a normal TFZ.

(viii) So by formation and decay of a significant TRZ, two H+ ions have been drawn together into a quasi-nucleus consisting of two H+ ions partially bound by a weakened strong force. As the TRZ decays and the Coulomb repulsion resumes, the strong force increases back to full strength faster than the Coulomb repulsion force returns and repels the two H+ ions. Since the quarks are much more loosely bound than normal, a quark in one of the H+ ions has flipped, turning the ion into a neutron n. The H+ ion and the neutron, partially bound already in a quasi-nucleus, simply "tighten" into a normal D+ nucleus as the TFZ condition is fully resumed.

The nuclear reaction equation for the above interaction may be written as

1HT + H => ((1lV + 1Ht+)) => (1n0 + 1lV) ^ 2H,+ = 2Dr [10]

In equation [10] we use the left superscript as the number of nucleons in the ion nucleus, the right subscript as the protons in the ion nucleus, and the right + superscript to show the overall charge of the ion and its sign. We use the expression in parentheses to show the involvement of a time-reversal zone (TRZ). Double parentheses show a stronger TRZ than single parentheses. Thus from double parentheses to single parentheses to no parentheses shows the initial formation and subsequent decay of the TRZ.

Another interaction involves a D+ ion and an H+ ion, to produce tritium. This is:

That reaction transmutes a deuterium ion and hydrogen ion into a tritium ion. Without showing it, in a TRZ three 2H1+ ions may also attract into a quasi-nucleus, and as the decay of the TRZ occurs, first one proton turns into a neutron and then a second one does also, by quark flipping. This nuclear reaction also produces a fusion into tritium.

Another reaction between two deuterium ions is"

That interaction — particularly in pre-deuterated electrolyte solution — gives the excess a particles produced in a great number of the cold fusion experiments.

A rarer but still occurring interaction is:

Indeed, reaction [13] may occur to completion and formation of a particles in some of the transmutations in an electrolyte, while it proceeds only to the intermediate phase in others. In that case, both deuterium ions and a particles may be produced out of the same overall "chain of reactions" where some reactions proceed all the way and some do not.

These interactions are directly using and transducing time-energy by use of the TRZ to time-reverse the Coulomb repulsion law for like charges. From the reactions, excess energy given off as heat may and will occur.

The nuclear physicist and nuclear chemist can immediately see a great many new nuclear reactions now made possible by the adroit production and decay of TRZs. A great number of these new nuclear reactions are now possible by this means, which are impossible in ordinary nuclear chemistry without the deliberate formation of TRZs.

These few examples serve to illustrate the process, and these reactions represent res alts already achieved in numerous cold fusion experiments worldwide, by many researchers and multiple laboratories. Now we turn to other evidence strongly supporting the novel nature of these reactions rather than several other proposed reaction equations yet to be proven. The other proposals do not explain the next type of new experimental reaction.

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