Strain to Stress Potential Energy Transduction

See Figure 4-6. This is a diagrammatic representation of a fundamental "strain-to-stress" transduction mechanism we believe was involved in Tesla's "single wire circuit" (i.e., his iterative retroreflecting circuit).

At each end of the circuit, the electrons are "trapped" in the open outside end. Hence when EM energy rushes to the capacitor on one end of the circuit, the forward emf tries to strain the dielectric from the inner plate toward the outer plate. However, the trapped electrons in the outer open wire cannot move, so they produce an equal back-emf and back force trying to strain the dielectric from the outer plate to the inner plate. The result is that the translational field "strain" energy (dipolar charging) is transduced into stress potential (monopolar charging) energy. Electrons try to strain the dielectric from the inner plate toward the outside with a "forward emf so as to charge the capacitor normally, while the trapped external electrons simply push back the other way, exerting a back emf force that is equal and opposite to the straining force from the forward emf and simultaneously tries to "charge" the capacitor in the opposite direction.

Importance Back Emf

Dielectric in capacitor is stressed not strained

This changes field (strain, translation) energy from the circuit into stress potential energy (curvature of spacetime)

Figure 4-6 Transaction of translational field energy into stress potential energy.

Dielectric in capacitor is stressed not strained

This changes field (strain, translation) energy from the circuit into stress potential energy (curvature of spacetime)

Figure 4-6 Transaction of translational field energy into stress potential energy.

Here is the importance of the "vector zero resultant" stress (monopolar) charging that occurs: The input EM strain field energy familiar in dipolar charging of a capacitor is converted to a dielectric stress (monopolar) potential for monopolar charging. This changes translational field energy (external energy) into stress potential energy (internal energy), adding an equal amount of back-emf translational field energy in so doing. In short, the charging captures an equal amount of charging energy from its external environment — in this case, from the back emf of the trapped external electrons in the outside open wire. This is one way to capture and use the back emf energy normally reducing the energy available.

We point out that this is charging the capacitor by Lorentz's symmetrical regauging, and it represents a rotation of the frame of the capacitor itself out of the laboratory frame. As is well known, the trapped energy of a capacitor in a rotated frame is not the same as the energy of the same capacitor in the nonrotated lab frame.

The single-wire system destroys the symmetry-enforcing function of a closed-current-loop circuit conventionally used. In short, it does not return the "spent electrons" from the ground return line back through the source dipole of the outside power source, so it does not use half the collected energy in the circuit to destroy the source dipole and its extraction of EM energy from the vacuum (to destroy its broken symmetry). Because it retains the broken symmetry, Tesla's single wire system is an open system far from thermodynamic equilibrium with its active vacuum environment. It is thus permitted to exhibit those five magic functions of such open dissipative systems: (1) self-ordering, (2) self oscillation or self-rotation, (3) outputting more energy than the operator inputs, (4) self-powering of itself and its load, and (5) exhibiting negentropy.

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