Sweet VTA for Closed Loop Self Powering Operation

Courtesy of Walter Rosenthal, we now present a visual record of the Sweet closed-loop self-powering version of the VTA and its momentous successful acceptance test on May 1, 1990, as closely observed by Rosenthal.

Figure 6-10 shows Sweet and a different version of the VTA, with the coils in a slightly different configuration and the windings altered. This is the two-magnet, 2-coil VTA that he built and tested for self-powering operation. Figure 6-11 shows the unit mounted on a special test fixture built by engineer Rosenthal. This fixture and its components allowed the sensing of the sine wave output power at the zero-value crossover points. To switch in the special clamped feedback system for self-powering operation of the input, and simultaneously switching away from external power, the switching had to be done very accurately at that zero-point crossover. Feedback would not stabilize and hold if the switching were done at any other point in the output cycle.

Unit independently examined and testing observed by test engineer Walter Rosenthal

Sweet Vacuum Trio Floyd
Figure 6-10 Sweet with 2-magnet 2 coil VTA, loads, and instruments for historic self-powering operational tests on May 1,1990.

Figure 6-12 shows the set-up for the tests, with the unit and loads as well as some of the instruments used. Figure 6-13 shows the closed-loop VTA powering itself and its loads, after being initially set into operation with outside input power by the operator, and then adroitly switched into self-powering by switching the input from external to internal at an output

Fixture allowed unit to be started into operation on external power then switched to self-powering internal power at the zero crossing of the output voltage The device in its fixture has a row of test points (disconnects) on every conductor going to the device

Floyd Sparky Sweet
Figure 6-11 Two-magnet two-coil VTA mounted on a special test fixture built by Walter Rosenthal.

power zero crossover point. This picture shows the unit in self-powering and stable operation, taking all its input energy from the vacuum, including the power necessary to power its own internal losses and the power necessary to power its controls and loads.

Independently examined and testing observed by test engineer Walter Rosenthal

Rosenthal Coil
Figure 6-12 The 2-magnet, 2 coil VTA, loads, and instruments for its historic self-powering operational tests on May 1,1990.

Formal self-powering test on 1 May 1990 The loads and the VTA are powered by electrical energy extracted directly from the activ e vacuum Independently observed by professional test engineer Walter Rosenthal

Vacuum Test Towncar
Figure 6-13 Historic self-powering operational test of the VTA IMy 1,1990 with no energy Input by the operator.

We strongly stress that this operation is permitted by the laws of physics and thermodynamics for an open EM system far from equilibrium in its exchange with its active environment. The active environment in this case is the combination of the active local vacuum and the active local curvatures of spacetime. The closed-loop condition is a new and stable equilibrium condition in the dynamics of the mutual exchanges between all three supersystem components: the system, the active vacuum, and the curvatures of spacetime. The system is in stable disequilibrium; the supersystem is in a stable new equilibrium condition.

We do know that the output current of the second Sweet device was comprised of a significant Dirac hole current166 as well as electron current — showing the expected heavy involvement of the altered local vacuum (the Dirac sea) and the curved local spacetime. The negative energy majority of the output revealed itself readily. If the output leads were shorted, ice formed instantly on the shorted leads from the moisture in the air. That is, an electrical short resulted in the sudden production of cold (negative) EM energy rather than positive EM energy.167 That can only occur if the majority of the output is negative energy, and any sudden surge in output (as from the shorted leads) increases the ratio of negative energy to positive energy so that very strong net cooling results.

For many predominantly mechanical components (simple electrical motors, light bulbs, etc.), Dirac hole current applied to the positive lead will power the circuit equally as well as electron current applied to the high voltage (negative) side, if the grounding is simply by a conductor and not a "vast reservoir" of charge. In such case, the wire chosen to conduct or direct the Dirac hole current should be made very small. It can and will

166 We do mean hole current in the Dirac sea, consisting of Dirac holes in the vacuum itself, prior to their interaction with charged matter to form lattice holes in matter. We do not mean the standard lattice hole current at all.

167 In local curved spacetime, Dirac holes constitute "negative energy EM fields and potentials". In such case, one can have negative energy entities and reactions analogous to positive energy entities and reactions in 3-space. On the time axis, one also has negative energy entities and currents, potentials, waves, fields, etc. Because classical Maxwell-Heaviside-Lorentz theory eliminates any modeling of the local vacuum or the local curvature of spacetime, these negative spacetime curvature (negative energy) potentials, fields, and currents have not been added into the electromagnetic theory. That of course is a serious shortcoming of the normal theory.

carry intense hole current and will cool rather than heat.168 The wire to the electron side of the device should be made normal sized, appropriate to the electron current to be carried.

Several other inventors over the years have been able to activate a barium ferrite magnet into sustained self-oscillation of its material particles or domains, in similar but weaker fashion for varying lengths of time — up to a month or so in the longest time that I am aware of. Sweet's magnet would continue in self-oscillation indefinitely unless (i) the magnet was sharply shocked mechanically (as with a hammer blow), (ii) the magnet was heated to too high a temperature, (iii) the leads of the output circuit were electrically shorted, or (iv) external artificial field interference (electrical

Unfortunately, Sweet signed multiple conflicting agreements with several financial backers, and his work was legally entangled so deeply that it was never straightened. He eventually died, taking with him his activation secret. He was often threatened, and was once fired at by a professional

168 This is very probably the secret of Tesla's "single wire system". At an exposition in Nevada, Bedini demonstrated just such a system, by powering 600 watts of audio speakers at the end of a long, very thin wire across the stage from his power amplifier. If he had been using positive EM energy, the wire would have instantly melted.

169 During that period, the Russians were playing with earthquake induction via scalar interferometers, at various places around the world, including inside the U.S. heartland. Sweet's machine would sit above a natural quake and not be affected. But when a quake within many hundreds — even several thousands — of miles was artificially induced, the Sweet device would react to it. A fairly close artificially induced quake would destroy the self-oscillation of the magnets, and sometimes a very close artificially induced quake would actually explode the intensely activated magnets. So for several years one had a way of ascertaining which quakes were natural and which were artificially induced, by simply having Sweet confirm how his magnets interacted.

170 For those who do not believe such an activity, here is a direct statement by then-Secretary of Defense William Cohen: "Others are engaging even in an eco-type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves... So there are plenty of ingenious minds out there that are at workfinding ways in which they can wreak terror upon other nations...It's real, and that's the reason why we have to intensify our efforts. " Quoted from DoD News Briefing, Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen, Q&A at the Conference on Terrorism, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and U.S. Strategy, University of Georgia, Athens, Apr. 28, 1997.

assassin using a silenced rifle. He survived the incident because, being old and a bit feeble, he stumbled and fell over the front steps just as the assassin fired. The bullet snapped by his ear, right where his head had just been. The incident was reported to the FBI, but with nothing else to go on, the assassin was never caught.

By whatever means, we do know that Sweet's magnets had to be activated by a special process that Sweet used and never fully revealed. An activated or "kinetic" magnet, it seems, was actually something a few of the "older magnetics guys" had known about, and Sweet had learned of it either from them or from Gabriel Kron. Sweet was also a transformer designer and expert, and he remarked that he had also observed specialized self-oscillation in certain transformers. Although most power engineers approached were either nonplussed or completely skeptical of a "self-oscillating field in a permanent magnet", self-oscillation of the fields, spin waves, etc. in permanent magnet materials are known to materials scientists today, especially to those working with magnetic effects in thin film materials {370, 371a-b}.

From a general relativity viewpoint, particle spin has a unique spin field of its own {372}, and there are such spin fields involved and operating in magnetic systems. The simple classical electrodynamic approach to magnetism and magnetic assemblies — or the view of a magnet as simply a bar with a north pole and a south pole — is quite insufficient when one wishes to research magnetic assemblies that will act as open systems far from equilibrium with their active environment, and thus will be capable of COP> 1.0 operations.

Recent work in coupled spins has revealed long-range coherence effects, previously unsuspected, as well as dual spin states participating in such phenomena {373a-b}. For example, Johnson has long used a 2-particle approach to spins and spin flipping in his own highly nonlinear magnetic assemblies {374}. His recent laboratory work has also shown similar and unsuspected long-range coherence effects in large multiple-magnet macroscopic systems {375} such as large assemblies of neodymium-iron magnets. This is strongly suggestive of the expected general relativistic spin field previously mentioned.

This work by Johnson is very important, since it may reveal a hitherto unsuspected mechanism for decay — of an otherwise nonconservative magnetic field around a closed loop — back into a conservative field. If one seeks an all-permanent-magnet rotating motor, a nonconservative magnetic field around a rotation loop must be established and sustained if one is to have self-rotation and self-powering. A nonconservative magnetic field around such a rotation loop means that the system acts as an open system far from equilibrium with its active vacuum and active curved spacetime environment, by means of some asymmetry mechanism such as multi-valued magnetic potential {376a-c, 377a-g}, elucidation of exchange forces {378a-c} at selected positions and directions, etc. It also requires both a stable broken 3-symmetry and a stable 4-symmetry.

On the other hand, in our opinion, Sweet employed spin waves triggered into self-oscillation in the nuclei of the barium atoms in his barium ferrite magnets. Indeed, such nuclear spin waves in magnets have been known for some time {379}. We postulate that, as in any other COP>1.0 power system, a self-rotating all-permanent-magnet motor must also involve Dirac sea hole current interacting in the various magnetic components. It is reasonable to suspect that these also interact with the electrons and their spin fields, perhaps producing the active mechanism providing that observed long-range coherence that apparently can decay the nonconservative magnetic field around the rotation loop, causing it to revert back to a conservative field and thereby stop the self-rotation and self-powering. If so, that long-range coherence must be violated and the violation stabilized. However, we could find no papers in the literature that deal with such possibilities. Hence it is a subject for further investigation by COP>1.0 researchers. The Highly Successful Anti-Gravity Test On one trip to California to work with Sweet, we noticed that, at full power output of 500 watts, his unit weighed a little less on the bench than when not powered. Struck by this anomaly, I considered the negative energy aspects of the output — as evidenced by the Sweet's demonstration of icing when the output leads were shorted — and the very high gain, which added up to a predominance of negative energy in the output.

Pondering this from a general relativity viewpoint, I reasoned that: (i) increase of positive EM energy density in space increases the curvature of spacetime to produce additional positive gravity (ii) increase of negative EM energy density in space must increase the curvature of spacetime in the other direction, and thus it must produce negative gravity Gn-, and (iii) the total gravity Gt produced in the immediate spacetime of an object producing both positive gravity Gp and negative gravity Gn, was Gt = f(Gp - Gn). Thus if we increased the output of the VTA unit, we must inevitably increase the weight reduction (antigravity) effect since the predominance of the energy output was negative energy, and this output was in the neglected negative energy fields aspect as well as in the local vacuum (spacetime) itself. After several back-of-the-envelope estimates and educated guesses over some weeks, I concluded that if the efficiency of the antigravity process171 were 10% and the unit was pushed to 1500 watts output, it would lose all its weight and hover weightless.

However, because of the nonlinear local spacetime, magnetic

172 173 I

monopoles , were deposited in Sweet's magnets when the unit was

171 We again accent the difference between efficiency and COP. Here we are definitely speaking of efficiency, not COP.

72 Dr. Robert Flower has confirmed that the 'symmetrized" (or "extended") Maxwell equations (Eqs. 7.1 in Springer's Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol. 16, p. 431) include non-zero magnetic charges and magnetic currents. Antenna engineers (Henning Harmuth, and others) know that these terms must be included for proper description of boundary conditions, even though, at the final step of computation, their integrals are set equal to zero (apparently to snuff out magnetic monopoles). For Dirac's original theory of the monopole, see P. A. M. Dirac, "Theory of magnetic monopoles," Phys. RevVol. 74, 1948, p. 817-830. See also F. A. Bais and B. J. Schroers, "Quantisation of Monopoles with Non-abelian Magnetic Charge," Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 512, 1998, p. 250-294; G. Lochak, "The Symmetry Between Electricity and Magnetism and the Problem of the Existence of a Magnetic Monopole," in T. W. Barrett and D. M Grimes. [Eds.] AdvancedElectromagnetism: Fundations, Theory, & Applications, World Scientific, 1995, p. 105-147. Particularly see T. W. Barrett, "On the distinction between fields and their metric: the fundamental difference between specifications concerning medium-independent fields and constitutive specifications concerning relations to the medium in which they exist." Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, 14(1), 1989, p. 37-75; — "Electromagnetic Phenomena Not Explained by Maxwell's Equations," in Lakhtakia, A. (ed.): Essays on the Formal Aspects ofElectromagnetic Theory, World Scientific, River Edge, NJ, 1993, p. 6-86; — "The Ehrenhaft-Mikhailov effect described as the behavior of a low energy density magnetic monopole-instanton." Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Vol. 19, 1994, p. 291-301. The work of Ehrenhaft, which is now substantiated and thoroughly replicated by Mikhailov, has produced experimental evidence of the magnetic monopole in many replicable experiments. In these experiments, magnetic particles move in a magnetic field along the lines of force. Reversal of the magnetic field, H, causes a reversal of the magnetic particle's motion, which is not the case with magnetic dipoles, since that can only occur for a monopole. See V. F. Mikhailov, "Observation of magnetic monopoles in the field of a line conductor," J. Phys. A: Math. Gen, Vol. 18, 1985, p. L903-L906; — "Observation of the magnetic charge effect in experiments with ferromagnetic aerosols." Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Vol. 12, 1987, p. 491-523. See also M J. Perry, "Magnetic monopoles and the Kaluza-Klein theory," Am. Inst. Phys. Conf. Proc, No. 116, 1984, p. 121-125; E. V. Smetanin, "Electromagnetic field in a space with curvature — new solutions," Soviet Physics Journal, 25(2), Feb. 1982. p. 107-111. [English translation]. See also T. T. Wu and C. N. Yang, "Dirac monopole without strings: monopole harmonics," Nuclear Physics, Vol. B107, 1976, producing power, and the density of these monopoles varied as the output power. Increasing the power output thus increased the tensile stress of the magnets, and at some point they would explode into fragments, like a hand grenade.174 This explained why conditioned magnets sometimes exploded when experiencing fluctuations from artificial earthquake induction testing.

Having no explosive control facilities, I warned Sweet not to push the unit past 1,000 watts, for safety reasons. At my urging, Sweet made a new output load often 100-watt lamps in sockets, so the load could be varied from 100 to 1,000 watts easily.

p. 365-380; — "Dirac's monopole without strings: classical Lagrangian theory," Phys. Rev. D, 14(2), July 15, 1976, p. 437-445.

173 We emphasize that a magnetic monopole can be taken simply as a highly localized magnetic scalar stress potential. See, e.g., P. A. M. Dirac, "Theory of magnetic monopoles," Phys. Rev., Vol. 74, 1948, p. 817-830. Dirac pointed out that the existence of a single magnetic monopole in nature would allow an explanation for charge quantization. We believe that the reverse of Dirac's argument may be true also: The existence of charge quantization should allow an explanation for the magnetic monopole. However, we also surmise that a magnetic monopole exists only in (and as) a sharply localized curvature of spacetime. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, second edition, 1975, p. had this to say about magnetic dipoles and Dirac's argument: "Dirac's argument... is that the mere existence of one magnetic monopole in the universe would offer an explanation of the discrete nature of electric charge. Since the quantization of charge is one of the most profound mysteries of the physical world, Dirac's idea has great appeal.

174 Sweet in fact did explode several magnets by pushing the power output of the device. Pushing the output was easy (and is easy for any unit outputting mostly negative energy), because all one had to do was connect additional load.

Free Energy Vta


Figure 6-14 Results of the"pushed"VTA antigravity test: Weight of VTA on the bench versus power output.


Figure 6-14 Results of the"pushed"VTA antigravity test: Weight of VTA on the bench versus power output.

Sweet completed the new load section and performed the experiment in California after 1 had returned to Huntsville, reading off the results to me over the phone. I took down the data, and then plotted the curve. Figure 614) shows the beautiful results. At 1,000 watts the unit had lost 90% of its weight. This was electrifying, because it was an unprecedented and highly successful antigravity experiment. Even my original "rough" assumption of levitation at 1500 watts was not too far from the indicated 1250 watts or so from the actual curve.

Vta Antigravity
Figure 6-15 Proposed mechanism for practical antigravity.

Figure 6-15 shows my proposed mechanism for antigravity. We simply use negative EM field energy generators to produce a negative EM energy field in space surrounding the source vehicle. The associated positive energy from the same energetic power source can power the vehicle simultaneously. The local reversed curvature of spacetime now interacts back upon the mass of the vehicle, to produce an antigravity component. By adjusting the output of the power source, the amount of negative energy — and hence the amount of antigravity component — can readily be varied and controlled. By controlling the directions of the field components, one can have unidirectional antigravity force, or antigravity and thrust force vectors simultaneously. Hence such a vehicle could be maneuvered and controlled, and be self-powering. This at least was and is my concept of a practical antigravity technology. Later Developments and the End of the VTA Later I prepared a paper on the VTA, including the antigravity experiment's results. We succeeded in getting the paper published {380} but I deliberately did not include the real details of the negative energy aspects as I wished to withhold that information for patenting. I prepared the entire paper, but placed Sweet's name first, as was appropriate since he was the inventor of the VTA.

Unfortunately — but understandably! — Sweet became a bit paranoid after the sniper assassination attempt (he was shot at by a distant sniper using a silenced rifle), and then would never allow a formal demonstration of his antigravity test. I strongly wished to present it to a major national U.S. scientific committee for independent testing and confirmation — which could have been done without Sweet having to reveal his activation process for the magnets. However, Sweet would not hear of such. Indeed, he fearfully kept the antigravity capability a secret from most of his backers. He strongly believed that he would be killed almost immediately if he revealed our antigravity experimental success. He may have been correct.

In fairness, the inventor and his backers of necessity have different priorities from those of scientists doing open research in a university. But at least a record of the test results is in the literature, though certainly not as rigorously or as extensively as I wished. Sometime later, I withdrew from any further association with the VTA unit, after the backers changed, a lawsuit broke out, and the entire project unraveled. Sweet later died without ever revealing his full secret for such powerful activation of self-oscillation in permanent magnets at low ELF frequencies.

The loss of the Sweet vacuum triode was a severe blow to science and a real setback to the scientific progress that could already have been made. Nonetheless, I contributed what I could, documented what I could, and made a videotape of the operation of the open-loop 500-watt device in the power mode. I also made a video of as much as Sweet would reveal of his activation process. I was not allowed to videotape a second antigravity experiment, even though I frequently and strongly requested it. By that time, Sweet mortally feared for his life. Perhaps what we have written in this book will be sufficient to provide some needed clues to some future graduate student or post-doctoral scientist who will succeed in recovering the necessary activation of magnets and both the COP»1.0 power capability and the antigravity experiments.

Meanwhile, I have filed a provisional patent application on the mechanism for antigravity, the gist of which I worked out solely on my own back in 1971 at Georgia Institute of Technology, and that I include in Chapter 8. As far as I am aware, no one else had thought of it previously, or has thought of it in that exact form {using the causal positron prior to observation, and while it is still a negative energy, negative mass electron, as the source charge for negative EM field energy, and also using the causalpositron s corresponding giant Heaviside nondiverged negative energy flow for substantial negative curvature ofspacetime.).

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