Swiss Overunity Converter

We must also include the "Testatika" devices invented by Paul Baumann in a religious commune, Methernitha, adjacent to the village of Linden in Switzerland180. Figure 6-18 shows one of the machines, which over a period of 20 years were developed in various output sizes up to 30 kilowatts. Once started, the device is self-powering while also powering a very substantial external load (up to 25 kW). Many engineers and scientists have observed the machines in observation, examined them, and measured one or more in operation, so there is little doubt of their authenticity.

180 The website for Methernitha is One may read the statementsof the religious group for oneself.

Negative Resistors
Figure 6-18 Swiss Methemitha machine.

However, there the science stops and mysticism and speculation begin. The religious commune releases no real details, except deliberately tantalizing clues. When questioned, the reply is that humankind in its present state cannot be trusted with such free energy. Almost all those examining the device have thought in ordinary electrical engineering terms, so very little comes from their examination because standard electrical engineering does not contain any theoretical explanation of C0P>1.0 electrical power systems whatsoever. Baumann himself sometimes cryptically replied that his study of lightning discharges in nature gave him the operational principle. As we shall see, that may indeed be a very substantial clue as to the possible technical C0P>1.0 mechanism, and one that does not exist in conventional classical electrodynamics.

The Methernitha (Baumann) machine resembles a Wimhurst machine with contra rotating static wheels, made of plastic or other insulating material with copper ribs and structures on one side and aluminum on the other. Use is made of the discharge into and from large capacitors and large coils. Also, at least one horseshoe-shaped permanent magnet assembly at the bottom is utilized. The major operating feature seems to be the contra rotating disks of a "Wimhurst" static generator machine, a magnetic field at right angles, and the sharp discharge of high voltage into and from large capacitors and large coils. The voluminous material on the Internet and in articles about the machines is mostly of little real use in contributing understanding or in proposing any legitimate mechanism.

We have not "solved" the machine's mechanism, since that would require close study of the device for a protracted time, and there has been no opportunity or time for that — although Baumann invited this author to come and see the machine some years before he died. Regrettably, I was unable to make the trip, and Baumann himself has now been dead for some years. We will therefore offer some technical suggestions pertaining to mechanisms that may be operating in the machine (or others like it).

First, we call attention to a paper by Aguirregabiria {418}. Quoting:

"An ohmic ring that rotates with constant angular velocity in an external uniform magnetic field is considered as a simple modelfor a current generator. Under the assumption that all quantities vary slowly in time, the lowest-order approximation to the surface charge density is found. The flux ofthe Poynting vector through the loop surface is also computed. Unlike the examples that are given in textbooks, this flux is not always incoming: It has the outgoing direction around the loop parts where the electrons are moving against electrostaticforces.

In other words, contrary to textbooks, there are positions where such a ring produces currents in one direction, and positions where it produces current in the other direction — in fact moving against the voltage andE-field, and thus serving as a true negative resistor in those latter regions. This may be a profound clue to the negative resistor operation of Baumann's machine.

This unexpected negative resistor effect is in theory usable to provide a true negative resistance. If there are transformers in the machine (and there are in some of them at least), then if a true negative resistor were used as an external shunt across the external circuit connected to the secondary of a transformer, the transformer could be operated as a true COP>1.0 device. The back-field connection from secondary to primary would be reduced by the fraction of the return current to the secondary that is shunted in parallel to that current "pumped" back up through the secondary.

This should be considered as an important possibility in the Baumann machine's operation.

Second, a charging and discharging capacitor involves not only energy flow in a direction perpendicular to the plates, but also an energy flow in a direction parallel to the plates {419}. Each ofthe rotating "plates" is actually a rotating capacitor of sorts, with a dielectric between two plates of special construction and dissimilar metals. The dielectric and the plates thus involve a complex intermingling of the negative resistor effect, a positive resistor effect, magnetic energy flows (both in entropic and negentropic manner in various regions), etc.

Baumann once handed two dissimilar plates, with a dielectric between them, to an engineer who measured it and found a startling several hundred volts across the plates! To date, no one is known to have been able to reproduce that effect.181 We suggest that, if the dielectric material is layered and photorefractive in nature, it may be related to the negative resistors built by Chung {420}. If so, the physical pressure of the plates against the layered dielectric may also be quite important. By varying this pressure, Chung and her team found that their device could be made to exhibit negative resistance, positive resistance, or zero resistance. This leads us to speculate that Baumann may have used a "stressed dielectric" capacitor as a device having a built-in negative resistance. In that case, build-up of such a surprisingly high voltage would indicate high stress locked into the negative resistance dielectric.

We also call attention to a paper by LaPointe {421}, which will be discussed later under inertial propulsion and antigravity. Essentially, true Dirac hole current in the adjacent vacuum/space can be generated by powerful electrical discharges, particularly from capacitors or coils. When the unaccounted Heaviside energy component is also considered as well as the Poynting component, LaPointe's despair at the difficulty of obtaining sufficiently large voltage gradient across a very tiny distance is dispelled.

181 We are reminded, however, of the peculiar phenomenon that can occur in large power capacitors stored on a warehouse floor. If their leads are not shorted, the capacitors will build up a self-charge gradually, and this can become quite lethal. For that reason, such large capacitors when stored will have their leads shorted, to prevent this "free cumulative charge and energy" from appearing and posing a serious hazard. To our knowledge, there has been no complete scientific explanation advanced for this "self-charging" effect in large storage capacitors. Our own hypothesis is that it is probably an effect of unaccounted Heaviside nondiverged energy flow components associated with various field/charge interactions in the area and with ordinary Poynting EM energy flow in the area, including within the earth itself. Further, with respect to the surface of the earth there is an increase in potential with altitude. Hence from any point above the earth's surface and a point on the surface, there exists a dipolarity and a "Kron open path". The broken symmetry of that dipolarity means that within it a continuous 4-circulation of EM energy flow occurs as well as point-dipole polarization.

If this speculation holds, then in examining lightning strikes and their more bizarre phenomena, Baumann may well have hit upon the fact that such discharges also generate negative energy as well as positive energy, although it appears that the technical concept of negative energy was foreign to him, at least in such terms. In short, he could have been unknowingly charging his large capacitors by Dirac sea hole currents, somewhat similar to Bedini's process.182 In that case, most of the "negative resistance" operation could be explained by Baumann's transduction of large bursts of negative energy into large bursts of positive charging energy and current in his capacitors.

Or, said another way in terms of Aguirregabiria's effect, Baumann may simply have been charging capacitors in that "negative resistance" Aguirregabiria region where the current does flow backwards against the voltage.

At least we have proposed some known though rare phenomena, which Bedini and my four colleagues and I have discovered in independent efforts. We strongly suggest that the Baumann device may unwittingly incorporate several of these mechanisms, but that neither Baumann nor the other members of Methernitha seem to have any technical notion of them.

With that, we leave it to the interested researcher to perform his or her independent Baumann-type system experiments and build-ups. Eventually, as is always true in science, the experiment must determine the truth of what is really happening. Given the successful experiment, then a model must be contrived or fitted that (i) explains the new effects produced, and (ii) complies with normal EM operation of normal COP<1.0 systems.

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