## Switching Circuits with Extended Electron Gas Relaxation Time

See Figure 6-16. Suppose an instantly applied voltage to the high side of the circuit instantly potentializes a pair of circuit conductors, with the other acting as ground. The charges in the conductor are thus instantly potentialized and excited, so that through the external circuit there exists an E-field E, where E = -V<j) between the high side of the circuit and the ground return side. An acceleration force on the energized electrons thus exists. It requires a finite time for the energized electrons in this force field E to break their static friction or inertia, move, and accelerate to the requisite slow drift velocity down the wire. During that delay or "electron relaxation time", no current is initially in progress, then a little current is flowing, and finally all of the current is flowing. This delay time is called the electron gas relaxation time.

Fast-acting switch

Fast-acting switch

Note: May use many strands of Fe-doped Al wire Instead of one, for each conductor Figure 6-16 Extended-relaxation-time circuit with diodes.

In the usual copper conductor, the delay time arguably may be on the order of 10-16 sec. This is so slight a delay that it can be ignored, for all practical purposes. Current — with resulting dissipation of the collected potential energy — usually occurs "as soon as" we apply the voltage, for all practical circuit work. However, suppose we could increase that electron gas relaxation time to, say, one millisecond? Then for an appreciable number of microseconds, there would be essentially no current flowing at all in the now-potentialized circuit.

We previously proposed a mechanism whereby a degenerate semiconductor alloy (say, of a tiny bit — perhaps 2% or so — of iron alloyed in aluminum wire) is utilized for the conductors of the external circuit. This should give a vastly extended electron relaxation time, somewhere on the order of a millisecond. By obtaining a millisecond, one can excite the circuit with current-free potential alone, which becomes pure regauging during the electron relaxation period.

We strongly point out that this is an asymmetrical regauging; the E-field previously mentioned is present, but the electrons are still frozen in the circuit since their relaxation has not begun. The gauge freedom principle, recognized in quantum field theory, assures us that we do not have to perform work to simply inflow potential energy to change the potential energy of the system. In real circuits, we may have to pay a tiny bit for switching to connect and disconnect the external potentialization source, but we can be at pains to make that very efficient and minimal {405}. The point is, other than minor switching costs, the dramatic change in the potential energy of the system is cost-free and no current is drawn from the external potential source. Hence — in the language of the electrical engineer — we draw no power from the source of potential, during this potentialization time.

Suppose we switch away the excitation source prior to its decay while the electrons are still frozen. Simultaneously, we complete the "freed" potentialized circuit with a strategically placed diode, as shown in Figure 6-16. Again, we pay a little switching cost, but it can be minimized. The electrons in the now asymmetrically potentialized circuit are still frozen, so no power has yet been drawn by the system from the external power supply furnishing the voltage only. In this way, pure asymmetrical regauging is used to excite the circuit with additional potential energy, without requiring work (except minimally for switching).

A little more time passes, and suddenly the electrons in the potentialized circuit wake up and move. We stress again that the full emf is acting on the electrons, and now they are finally free to move. There is a net nonzero regauging E-field (force field) also. The excited closed current loop circuit then discharges in normal Lorentz symmetrical fashion, killing the source dipolarity as current is driven back up through the diode, but all the work in the load is "free". The circuit specialist will also recognize the usefulness of additional components associated with the shunt, such as a capacitor or even an LC oscillator for AC work.

If LE is load work obtained and SE is switch energy utilized, this approach yields COP = LE / SE and COP > 1.0 is possible. The reason is that the primary source dipole providing the potential for potentialization of the electrons and regauging of the circuit is removed from the closed current loop circuit and the effect of current through the back emf. Thus the primary source dipole is not destroyed faster than the load is powered. It is only depleted by the small amount of switching energy we utilized. This appears to be a major way to avoid the C0P<1.0 limitation of the usual closed current loop circuit.

This is a circuit with legitimate C0P>1.0 capability, without violation of the laws of thermodynamics or physics. We break the Lorentz condition between the initial "external circuit" and the primary source dipole for the regauging energy. After regauging, we "cut loose" the circuit with its own primary dipolarity and newly transferred "separate source dipole". By such adroit use ofelectron gas relaxation time, we can use one source dipole to freely make another of equal intensity, without any depletion ofthe first.

The difficulty is in getting the Fe-Al alloy wire, which must be made in an inert atmosphere since Al corrodes easily and the two elements have very different melting temperatures.

Alternatives can be visualized, such as to utilize a capacitor whose plates are made of the Fe-Al alloy. This might be useful in the triode-capacitor, to be discussed next. A series of pulses might then be used to charge the capacitor, without depletion of the primary source dipole in the external source of potential, if it is repeatedly switched in and away. An interesting question arises if such a capacitor with tailored "hysteresis" in its charging is utilized in various circuits and schemes containing a coil of useful time delay also, particularly since the electron gas relaxation phenomenon involves decaying oscillations. Interesting phase angle results can be constructed in such circuits, but we leave the resolution of this question to future experimenters.

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