The Fogal Charge Barrier Device

Figure 5-7 shows an illustration from one of William Fogal's patents {314} on a new kind of transistor (more accurately, a charge barrier device). Fogal's device incorporates a very special electrolytic capacitor133, which introduces optical-type functions as well as the more familiar capacitor functions.

Fogal Semiconductor

• Blocks electron current flow i = dq/dt

- As capacitor charges electrons in emitter junction attracted to plate

- Charging plate produces high barrier

- AC conduction electrons cannot penetrate banier

- AC displacement current ótyút and Poynting current S = ExH are passed through the barrier

• AC into the barrier produces AC Lorentz symmetrical regauging, which produces AC stresswaves, which are longitudinal EM waves a priori

• Semiconductor becomes "energy pipe"

• Massless displacement current is energy flow without losses

• Energy can be collected and separately discharged through load for free work

• Transmission mode Holding potential while changing displacement current produces enfolded longitudinal EM waves inside potential accompanied by time-polarized phase conjugate twins DI AG RAM MAT IC

• Reception mode Receiving longitudinal EM waves at barrier provides scalar ONLY interferometry, making transverse EM waves

• Fogal semiconductor can both receive and transmit via enfolded longitudinal EM waves, which are not limited to the speed of light in vacuum

• Semiconductor can also be used as a true negative resistor.

Figure 5-7 Novel characteristics of the Fogal semiconductor.

Most semiconductor materials are optically active materials. Further, the individual electrons in a signal with a frequency well below light frequencies, are "jittering" with higher frequencies including the entire optical band. A "frequency" of a signal thus is imbedded in a jittering higher frequency complex set, and that set is quite able to interact in optical fashion ifthe complex itself is used and controlled. Fogal's process

133 The exact method of manufacturing this electrolytic capacitor, and its internal structuring, is proprietary to Fogal and a major capacitor manufacturer, who is under a nondisclosure agreement with Fogal.

does appear to both use and control that jittery high frequency signal complex.

Hence Fogal's process can "tunnel under" the normal detected force-field frequency responses of the individual electron,134 and directly affect, change, and alter its higher-frequency environmental changes in the forcefree field or field-free potential condition. In this way, Fogal has carried the electron (and hole) functions of a transistor to functions well beyond those in the present texts {315}. He may have also extended quantum mechanical tunneling effects to signals between widely separated regions of spacetime, since superluminal communication is possible with the Fogal semiconductor properly used. Longitudinal EM waves — which Fogal's semiconductor is able to utilize and control — can and do move at superluminal speeds {93a) because it uses the long-neglected "infolded" longitudinal electrodynamics revealed by Whittaker in 1903 and 1904. Further, superluminal solutions to Maxwell's equations do exist {93b}.

The charge barrier device is formed in a bipolar design that can be incorporated in Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) designs as well as multiple gate devices. The device also produces a Hall effect EM field internal to the device. The Hall effect magnetic force will force electron flow and angular spin of the electrons in the same direction to the top of the conduction bands in the crystal lattice on semiconductor devices, unlike Silicon On Insulators (SOI) devices that force electron flow to the surface of the semiconductor lattice. This forcing function, together with the "extended tunneling" effects on the embedded EM environment of the electrons and holes, produces a unique effect. The device is able to stop and "pin" electrons while continuing to process the signal energy flow (the entire jitter signal complex) in which the electrons were coupled and moving. Thus the Fogal transistor is able to operate upon and with massfree spacetime itself, and curvatures thereof. It is the first practical semiconductor capable of performing engineering ofthe active vacuum.

In the last few years we have stressed that EM waves in spacetime are longitudinal EM waves a priori — but they are accompanied by time-polarized waves (phase conjugates). Hence the two in combination become observable, as pointed out in quantum field theory by Mandl and Shaw {316}. We detect effects a priori and not their causes. We detect

134 The electron itself is enveloped in the jittering of whatever background it is exposed to and interacts with. Hence a coupling interaction exists to arrange and control the jitter of the electron as well.

transverse electron precession waves in our detector circuits, and not the causal waves interacting with them to produce their precession. The Fogal transistor is able to process the causal longitudinal EMwaves directly, prior to their interaction with matter. It in fact opens up an entirely new region of "detected physical reality" to our vision and detection, a region far more extensive than the development of infrared and ultraviolet sensors opened up to our sight.

The pioneers of electromagnetics, who erroneously assumed a material ether and EM force fields in space, confused the transverse "material detected waves" (electron precession waves) in the detector with the "material undetected waves" they assumed to be incoming from space. Note that neither the electron nor the atom had been discovered when all these assumptions were used to determine how the EM wave in space was to be viewed and modeled. The transverse waves observed in the interacting/detecting of the Drude electron gas — i.e., the detected electron precession waves — were considered to be direct interceptions of the incoming causal waves from space. This already substituted the effect for the cause, as we have previously discussed.

Further, Faraday envisioned the "material field in space" as consisting of a series of "taut physical strings". A "perturbation" of this field in space was, in his view, simply the transverse wave plucking of those strings. Maxwell, who closely followed Faraday's experimental work and concepts, simply assumed the transverse "plucked string waves" advanced by Faraday. Therefore, the erroneous notion of the transverse EM wave in space arose and stayed firmly fixed in the theory.

One can check Whittaker's decomposition of the scalar potential into longitudinal EM wave pairs, then realize that the energetic vacuum is naught but a giant scalar potential — which can be decomposed by Whittaker's method. In short, as a scalar potential, space itself is a writhing mass of longitudinal EM waves and their highly nonlinear dynamics and interferences, or it can be modeled in that fashion. The energy continually enters 3-space from the time domain to the negative charge of every point in space considered as a point dipole, thence to the positive charge, thence back to the time domain. Notice the giant 4-space circulation involved. One also notes the polarization of the vacuum continually happening and arising spontaneously, as is well known in quantum mechanics. We also suspect that this or a similar mechanism is at the root of spontaneous broken symmetry in physics.

An interesting thing emerges from Whittaker's 1904 paper {317}, where he showed that all EM fields and waves can be decomposed into differential functions of two scalar potentials. Each of these two base scalar potentials can be decomposed by Whittaker's earlier 1903 paper {85} into a set of longitudinal EM waves. All EM fields, potentials, and waves are comprised of longitudinal EM waves and their internal dynamics, which also comprise waves of spacetime curvatures and their dynamics. Further, each longitudinal EM wave in 3-space is accompanied by its phase conjugate twin in the time-domain.

This far more primary "internal electrodynamics comprised of pure spacetime dynamics" — comprising and creating the recognized EM potentials, waves, and fields, their internal dynamic spacetime structuring and also the structuring of time — has not been developed and applied in physics theory. This internal or "infolded" electrodynamics is the primary "medium" in which the Fogal semiconductor appears to work and work upon. The Fogal semiconductor seems able to modulate and demodulate this internal structuring or parts of it, as has been demonstrated.

Imperfect longitudinal EM waves — called undistortedprogressive waves - are already known to be able to travel at superluminal velocity, e.g., as shown by Rodrigues and Lu {318}. Indeed, Maxwell's equations have both subluminal and superluminal solutions, as shown by Rodrigues and Vaz {319}. Further, these waves can carry information. However, the technology of employing these waves has been lacking {320}. The use of scalar EM wave interferometry to produce normal EM fields and EM field energy at a distance has been shown by Evans et al. {321}.

As pointed out by Rodrigues and Lu {318}, perfect longitudinal EM waves travel at infinite velocity. This eliminates the difference between potential, field, and wave; a perfect longitudinal EM wave can also be taken as an instantaneous scalar potential with net force-free iterative regauging (varying at each point instantly and simultaneously). Both ways of looking at it produce the same end result: instantaneous remote energy change of spacetime energy density itself, in general relativity terms, or of the energy density of the vacuum, in particle physics terms.

Elsewhere, (e.g., Chapter 2), we also pointed out the "total photon interaction" mechanism that generates the flow of an entity through time. We also have advanced the concept of a "time-reversal zone" (TRZ) as a region where antiphoton interactions with charges predominate over photon interactions. We used these new concepts to propose exact nuclear reactions for the production of excess deuterium, tritium, and alpha particles in cold fusion experiments. In such an "excited state" TRZ region, the law of attraction and repulsion of charges is reversed. In the TRZ, like charges attract and unlike charges repel. Further, the gluon forces are reduced, so the quarks in the nucleons are much more lightly bound. In such TRZ zones, dense clustering of like charges occurs due to their mutual attraction.

A time-reversal zone is created in one part of the Fogal transistor, greatly assisting in the "electron pinning" action. That is, the usual strong mutual repulsion (the Coulomb barrier) of the electrons at the pinning site vanishes in the TRZ inside the Fogal semiconductor, and the resulting mutual attraction of the electrons greatly facilitates the pinning process far beyond what is usually obtained against "like charge" repulsion in a time-forward zone. Indeed, the TRZ in the Fogal semiconductor also materially enhances the electron pinning process beyond what can usually be obtained with cryogenics. At least some indication of trapping and perhaps pinning has been reported in amorphous semiconductors at room temperature {322a-b}.

The Fogal device is able to remove EM noise (electron noise) from existing EM signals, displays, etc. by 96% or more, by pinning the electrons and simultaneously time-reversing the spatial EM signal back to its original noise-free state prior to hosts of interaction electron collisions. This "noise removal" capability has been rigorously tested by independent parties, including at a leading university in the Netherlands, 35 and by several large electronics companies and several other universities. By pinning the electrons (and electron currents) while still processing and propagating the EM energy effects, the Fogal device can move noiseless EM energy without loss at room temperatures, at superluminal velocities, and reconnect the lossless propagated energy to electrons past the pinning region at a receiving region, releasing the electrons in the receiving region. The Fogal semiconductor therefore already accomplishes room temperature superconductivity as well as tunneling.

The Fogal device's basic mechanism (consisting of all the submechanisms) is to restore and move EM energy in force-free form, using direct regauging of the vacuum instantaneous scalar potential itself (or the

135 The university researchers verified room temperature superconductivity being produced by the Fogal semiconductor in their independent verification measurements. They also measured that some 96% of the noise already present in a circuit was removed by Fogal's semiconductors in Fogal's circuits.

vacuum potentials themselves). It operates directly upon the longitudinal EM waves comprising the vacuum potential. Hence it directly engineers the active vacuum and curved spacetime. I.e., it is the first supersystem engineering device of (hopefully) many more to come.

In the "jitter" environment of the space in which the individual electron is embedded, there exist many (and essentially all) field gauges, simultaneously. 0ne of these, of course, is the Coulomb gauge where there exists an instantaneous scalar potential. Usually the instantaneous scalar potential is considered only a near-field effect, with no contribution at any significant distance. However, as Jackson points out {323}, transverse radiation fields are given by the vector potential alone. Also, in the Coulomb gauge the scalar potential "propagates" instantaneously everywhere in space {324}.

Along with other electrodynamicists, Jackson avoids the obvious superluminal communications implications of the instantaneous scalar potential by stating that " is the fields, not the potentials, that concern us. "As he points out, a detailed (though conventional) discussion of causality is given by Brill and Goodman {325}. Again as pointed out by Jackson, in the Coulomb gauge the quantization of the photon involves only the vector potential. The use of the scalar potential in the Coulomb gauge, together with deliberate engineering of the internal longitudinal Whittaker wave structure ofthatpotential, directly allows distant engineering via multiply connectedspacetime, even inside the nuclei of distant objects. This is infact a unique and marvelous engineering application and extension ofBohm's quantum potential concept.

My "pinning" the electrons, apparently Fogal is able to essentially "hold" the vector potential and all the force fields while the instantaneous scalar potential persists and now extends over all space, notjust to the near field since allformerly moving field dynamics that would limit it have been frozen. If this effect is substantiated, I have nominated it as the "Fogal effect". Further, this unrestricted instantaneous scalar potential now i lunges in field-free form (pure regauging form) over all space according to the signal energy being perpetuated and propagated136 by the Fogal semiconductor independently of its pinned electrons. In this fashion, the Fogal semiconductor is indeed capable of "instantaneous" communication

136 Here we again point out that the usual notion of a signal as energy propagating in

3-space is wrong. It propagates in 4-space, but not in 3-space. Also, what propagates is the spreading point-like polarization of the vacuum itself.

over essentially unlimited distances. At least one independent test has verified the Fogal instantaneous communication effect, but the test is still held proprietary by the testing agency.

Since Fogal is able to alter and control the internal longitudinal EM wave Whittaker structuring of the scalar potential used in this Coulomb gauge manner, he is able to accomplish superluminal (and even instantaneous) communication, so long as a Fogal semiconductor is available in both the transmitter and the distant receiver. In the transmitter, the Fogal component is necessary to infold the information into the internal LW structure of the scalar potential to be used in the Coulomb gauge, thus transforming the input signal information into output longitudinal EM wave information directly in spacetime itself. The Fogal component in the receiver is necessary in order to detect, transduce, and outfold the infolded longitudinal EM wave information inside the instantaneous scalar potential. We have stressed that these internal longitudinal EM waves and their dynamics are spacetime curvatures and their dynamics. Hence their transmission and detection is a viable process for superluminal communication, including instantaneous communication.137

Further, once the electrons are pinned, all "signal fields in charged matter" (i.e., all EM force fields) are frozen and localized. This, we believe, involves a new physical effect introduced by Fogal that is analogous to the Aharonov-Bohm effect.138 So I have called it the "Fogal effect". That is,

137 We believe that physics books will have to be substantially rewritten, once the internal longitudinal structuring of the scalar potential (and of EM fields and waves) is employed directly in open technology. We further believe that the Fogal semiconductors are the first pre-developments in that coming vast new technology, at least in the open Western scientific world.

138 There have long been, and still are, efforts to "fit" the Aharonov-Bohm effect into slightly modified classical electrodynamics after all. E.g., see C. J. Carpenter, "Electromagnetic energy changes due to charges moving through constant, or zero, magnetic field," IEE Proc. A, 138(1), Jan. 1991, p. 55-70; — "Electromagnetic energy and power in terms of charges and potentials instead of fields," IEE Proc. A, 136(3), 1989, p. 101-113; G. M. Graham and D. G. Lahoz, "Observation of static electromagnetic angular momentum in vacuo," Nature, Vol. 285, 1980, p. 154-155; T. H. Boyer, "Semiclassical explanation of the Matteucci-Pozzi and Aharonov-Bohm phase shifts," Found. Phys, 32(1), Jan. 2002, p. 41-49; — "The Aharonov-Bohm effect as a classical electromagnetic-lag effect: An electrostatic analogue and possible experimental test," Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 100B, 1987, p. 685-701; — Classical electromagnetic deflections and lag effects associated with quantum interference pattern shifts: considerations related to the Aharonov-Bohm effect," Phys. Rev. D, Vol. 8, 1973, p. 1679-1693; — "Does the Aharonov-Bohm effect the force-fields are frozen and localized by the pinning, but the field-free potentials then remain, including the instantaneous scalar potential <j> and probably the curl-free magnetic vector potential A as well. The result is that the instantaneous scalar potential can be directly regauged everywhere at once by the changes of magnitude of the "frozen fields", rather as if they were "static voltage", possibly simultaneously regauging the field-free Apotential — all as part of a new kind of Lorentz symmetrical regauging. After all, a single Lorentz symmetrical regauging {326} changes both the potentials A and Changes in symmetrical regauging produce stress waves, which are longitudinal EM waves. Continual changes of symmetrical regauging also continually changes both the potentials A and i|). including over all space when operating in the Coulomb gauge. This is one explanation of the beautiful effect that Fogal has discovered and is utilizing.

We accent that, with pinned electrons frozen in place, the normal <|) and A in matter (defined in terms of interaction with charge and the movement of charge) cannot occur. With time reversal zone utilized, electron pinning is greatly eased and the instantaneous scalar potential (j> now assumes the primary active propagating role in surrounding space. Neither <j) nor A is free to develop the normal d^ici and VxA spatially propagating dynamics of the force fields (effect fields) observed in matter. In the Fogal process, the instantaneous scalar potential "signal" (the causal signal in 4-space) is generated in the transistor when it pins the electrons and freezes the force fields into "equal and opposite" form. Since no net force field can develop, the instantaneous scalar potential is a stress potential in spacetime itself and simply changes its magnitude instantly, at each and every point in space that it occupies, when the Fogal chip's input EM fields change in its signal input.

In the output, the net force fields remain zero and frozen, even though the individual force fields change constrained to "equal and opposite" manner. If one wishes, one may take this part of the Fogal output — the field free changes in the stress energy density of the vacuum — as one expression of modululating the instantaneous scalarpotential's energy density inperfect correspondence to the field changes in the normal EM input to the Fogal transistor.

exist?". Found. Phys, Vol. 30, 2000, p. 893-905; — "Classical electromagnetism and the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift," ibid, p. 907-932.

The instantaneous Fogal changes in magnitude (e.g., instantaneously induced upon a distant collecting charge) are no longer limited to near field effects, or to the speed of light — and communication is not bound to the retarded wave. Now the induced changes of the instantaneous scalar potential exhibit far field effects and these changes — being naught but these special Lorentz condition magnitude regaugings — are instantaneous. This of course is a form of action at a distance. We stress that the best astronomical evidence also points to a startlingly superluminal speed of gravitation (curvature of spacetime, which after all is just a longitudinal EM wave or set of them) itself, as pointed out by Van Flandern.139 If so, since any change of energy in spacetime is a curvature of spacetime, and one form of spacetime curvature can move at superluminal velocity, so can other forms of spacetime curvatures. In our favorite expression, it only takes one white crow to prove that not all crows are black.

As is well known, the de Broglie waves of matter always move faster than light, as do appropriate quantum tunneling processes. Further, the quantum potential used by Bohm in his beautiful hidden variable theory of quantum mechanics {347} also appears instantly throughout space, wherever it will be, and with the value it will have. The question of whether a quantum potential can be used to communicate has been posed but not definitively answered in the previous literature. We propose a resounding "Yes!" if one uses the internal structure of the quantum potential for one's communication, applying some component such as the Fogal semiconductor to do the infolding and outfolding.

We also propose that a process for forming and using an instantaneous scalar potential in the Coulomb gauge can be interpreted as the formation and use of a quantum potential or its direct equivalent. If that assumption is true, then the Fogal semiconductor seems to be the first component ever openly built and patented which produces and uses Bohm's quantum potential, including its infolded Whittaker structuring and dynamics. It also definitively answers in the affirmative the question of whether the quantum potential and the scalar potential in the Coulomb gauge can be used in superluminal communications.

139 Tom Van Flandern, "The speed of gravity - What the experiments say," Phys. Lett. A, vol. 250, Dec. 21, 1998, p. 1-11. Van Flandern gives an extremely important, clear, and succinct summary showing that experiments refute the standard far field assumption of light speed in gravitational effects. Laboratory, solar system, and astrophysical experiments for the "speed of gravity" yield a lower limit of 2xl010c.

Thus Fogal has apparently found a way to directly modulate intelligent change of magnitudes into and upon the internal longitudinal EM wave structure of the instantaneous scalar potential (and upon the quantum potential), as well as iterative "pure net-field-free" regauging of the instantaneous scalar potential {327}. It seems to have previously escaped notice that varying the Lorentz symmetrical regauging of a circuit or system easily produces pure longitudinal EM waves. This strongly implies that Fogal has surmounted and removed the barrier to practical superluminal communication and even further has reduced the barrier to practical instant communication.

Several tests — in one of which the present author participated — have indeed shown Fogal transmission of signals, including video signals, between two widely separated points with less delay than light-speed signals exhibit, and also with video bandwidth infolded inside a DC signal. In at least one series of tests in a large company's own laboratory and by its own engineers, communications from a ground-based Fogal chip transmitter apparatus occurred between the ground station, through the uplink into the satellite, back through the downlink to earth, into a ground-based transmission system with repeater stations, and into the receiving Fogal transistor unit in the lab. The transmissions occurred with no discernible time delay, something previously deemed impossible in all the textbooks. This was particularly significant since even the conventional time-delays in the repeater station amplifiers and the satellite receiver-transmitters were apparently eliminated. This further accents that the infolded "longitudinal EM waves superhighway" inside all EM fields, potentials, and waves — including inside matter such as the ocean and the earth itself— is a multiply connected space phenomenon. It is the most ideal communication medium, enabling deep space communication without delay, etc.

The implications for nondelayed future remote control of robot spacecraft and robots landing on the surface of planets and asteroids are obvious, as are the implications for direct exploration and measurement of conditions inside the interiors of the planets, the sun, the moon, and the earth via internal scalar interferometry. We accent that Fogal has done private experiments exploring this vast new physical reality revealed by the "internal longitudinal EM wave dynamics" and its interferometry, and it is mind-expanding (some would say mind-boggling!). It is also a great new step in physics and in our very notion of physical reality itself.

Thevacuum itself, being highly energetic, is indeed a scalar potential. Further, it has any and all gauges. Since potentials superpose, we postulate that Fogal's use of the instantaneous scalar potential is directly superposed on the corresponding instantaneous Coulomb gauge scalar potentials of the entire vacuum. His discovery of how to modulate the instantaneous <jj magnitude without allowing modulated EM field propagation, constitutes a very special case of tunneling right through "space" itself, using one aspect or "component" of space.

In short, to be a little dramatic one might even apply the term subspace communication to this long distance tunneling effect. That interpretation would also seem consistent with the deterministic variation of the internal stress energy density structuring of the vacuum that is produced in the Fogal process.

From another viewpoint, Fogal has succeeded in not only finding the missing chaos of quantum mechanics, but in deterministically engineering and using it.

This is also consistent with Whittaker's decomposition of the scalar potential into bidirectional longitudinal EM waves {328} and his connection between time-polarized EM waves and longitudinally polarized EM waves as reinterpreted (12) to be consistent with quantum field theory {19}. We point out that a single point in time is simultaneously "connected" to every point in the universe. By using a transmission system that back-pedals from 3-space into the time domain, an instantaneous connection to any other spatial point in the universe is therefore available, if one's technology can take advantage of it. Fogal's technology does.

It is also consistent with quantum tunneling experiments that have demonstrated the transmission of intelligent signals (such as Mozart's 40th symphony) at superluminal speed between two points in a waveguide {329a-b}. Regardless of how one chooses to model intelligent superluminal communication, it has been experimentally demonstrated — multiple times and by multiple experimenters in multiple laboratories — that such can occur.

The difference in those superluminal experiments and the performance of the Fogal chip is that the chip uses iterative regauging of the magnitude of the instantaneous scalar potential, as well as deterministic alteration of the scalar potential's internal longitudinal EM wave substructuring, and probably also modulates the internal structuring of a quantum potential. The presently proposed quantum tunneling mechanisms apparently do not do this, at least as they are presently modeled. Further, the quantum tunneling mechanism is difficult to apply; the Fogal mechanism is fairly simple and straightforward to apply, given the Fogal semiconductor at both the transmitting and receiving ends of the communication system.

Pure longitudinal EM waves readily penetrate matter to great distances, since matter is mostly empty space between widely separated mass particles. On the microscopic scale, matter is comparable to something like the solar system, except that intense fields and potentials (bundles of longitudinal EM waves and their dynamics) occupy the space between the particles. All this vast empty space inside matter, being a potential and comprised of longitudinal EM waves, is a giant "superhighway" for the passage of longitudinal EM waves and their dynamics, as indeed is matter itself which is mostly such empty space. Further, even the masses themselves are such, since mass is simply highly compressed spatial energy density, and therefore is highly compressed longitudinal EM wave energy and dynamics. It is just a "denser" superhighway.

Hence a longitudinal EM wave system can readily be developed to "see through matter" using Fogal semiconductors in transmitter and receiver. Fogal in fact has made at least one proprietary prototype demonstration unit that demonstrates this startling capability. The vision is very clear, due to the remarkable absence of noise in the Fogal process. It is also shockingly unique, and it changes our very notion of physical reality. We are not at liberty to further discuss this new "sub-submicroscopic" reality revealed in such experiments. We simply interpret it as jumping the presently assumed restrictions of observation, and allowing the direct or correlated observation of the virtual state entities.

As alluded to, the previously modulated "Fogal type signals" emitted by all matter and other physical entities can also be displayed on a screen using the Fogal process, revealing a hitherto unsuspected physical reality and EM signals environment. In this prototype system, Fogal showed a remarkable and startling new extension of our very perception of physical reality itself. This is another reason why we expect that physics books will have to be rewritten, once the Fogal semiconductors are on the market and available in practical equipment. As every physicist knows, any dramatic increase in our ability to sense finer levels of physical reality inevitably leads to new and startling advances in physics itself and changes our very knowledge of the nature of physical reality.

The ability to bypass and "park" force fields by pinning their source electrons in a time-reversal zone, while continuing the flow of noise-free EM energy at will and at infinite velocity, obviously enables COP>1.0 systems. A pure longitudinal EM wave already has infinite energy, for such a wave appears across the entire universe simultaneously, instantly changing the stress energy density of the entire vacuum in which the longitudinal EM wave is present. 140 The back emf and back mmf fields in an EM system or electrical power system can be frozen and held from restoring the Lorentz condition in the circuit, using the Fogal semiconductor {330}. We presently have an agreement with Fogal for the licensed use of his semiconductors in all such energy unit applications.

A quantum potential is modeled in a multiply connected spacetime, so that a given joule of input energy to one multiply connected point simultaneously appears in every other multiply connected point.141 Since the Fogal semiconductor apparently can operate in quantum potential or Coulomb gauge fashion, it can act as a direct energy amplifier, with respect to the lab observer in a singly connected space. In short, the Fogal process dramatically extends the concept of "conservation of energy" to include conservation in multiply connected space and therefore incorporates observed energy amplification in singly connected space. Again, a broken symmetry (in singly connected space) reveals a higher symmetry (in multiply connected space), and the hierarchy principle is alive and well. In short, with the Fogal semiconductor used in power systems, the law of conservation of energy must be extended to include energy symmetry in multiply connected space but asymmetry in singly connected space. Obviously, such functioning totally transcends the limitations of the present thermodynamics models.

We carefully point out that this is not "energy creation" but simply the energy following the known kind of statistics in physics that allows a thing to be in multiple different places simultaneously. What is actually "instantly transmitted" is the simultaneous regauging of the energy density of the vacuum. At any point in space, the vacuum has an energy density and thus is a scalar potential with a given magnitude. Changing the energy density is simply regauging, which is freely permitted under the gauge freedom axiom of quantum field theory. So instant amplification of

140 This should not be too surprising, since the bare charge and the bare mass of every electron each has infinite energy, as is well known in particle physics. For confirmation in very straightforward language, see Nobelist Steven Weinberg, Dreams ofa Final Theory, Vintage Books, Random House, 1993, p. 109-110.

141 If we wish, we can even take time itself as a special kind of quantum potential, since time also displays such a "multiplicity of connection" in 3-space. In one sense, time is the ultimate quantum potential, since a single point in time is "connected" to every single 3-space point in the universe, simultaneously.

energy" over a region of points is simply the instant regauging of the potential already present at each point in the region. It is a permissible multiply connected space violation of the present more limited "special case" energy conservation concept, which implicitly assumes a singly connected space. We have been working with Fogal for some time in this area, and we expect to rapidly develop and introduce commercial EM power systems based on the Fogal semiconductor's abilities in multiply connected space, as soon as it is in production and available. Until then, the details of our work in that area must remain highly proprietary.

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