## The Obsolete Foundations of Classical Electrodynamics

Another modern example of science's resistance to change is the failure to update classical electrodynamics to include the active vacuum interaction

and the interaction with the local curved spacetime27, as we shall discuss in Chapter 2. It has been scientifically established (in particle physics) that there can be no equilibrium of any physical system without accounting for the vacuum interaction.28 To simply observe a physical electrical power system sitting there stably and running, is to prove its vacuum interaction in order to even have such equilibrium.

An interesting point then arises since every charge and dipole in the system is a broken equilibrium in the exchange between the material system and the vacuum. Not only does an electrical circuit receive some energy from the vacuum, but also the energy from the vacuum is massively hemorrhaging from the vacuum into the system (and back out)! The isolated charge, e.g., is infinite if one removes the screening clustered virtual charges of opposite sign, as is well known in modern physics. Further, the screening virtual charges also have infinite charge, again as is well known. The difference between these two infinite values of charge, e.g., gives the standard finite observed charge of the charged particle. The lay reader may wish to positively verify that statement; e.g., as given by Nobelist Steven Weinberg.29 Quoting:

"[The total energy of the atom] depends on the bare mass and bare charge of the electron, the mass and charge that appear in the equations of the theory before we start worrying about photon emissions and reabsorptions. But free electrons as well as electrons in atoms are always emitting and reabsorbing photons that affect the electron's mass and electric charge, and so the bare mass and charge are not the same as the measured electron mass and charge that are listed in tables of elementary particles. In fact, in order to account for the observed values (which of course are finite) of the mass and charge of the electron, the bare mass and charge must themselves be infinite. The total energy of the atom is thus the sum of two terms, both infinite: the bare energy that is infinite

27 We again stress the concept of the supersystem, introduced in footnote 11.

28 E.g., see T. D. Lee, Particle Physics and Introduction to Field Theory, Harwood, New York, 1981. On p. 380-381, Lee shows how there is no symmetry of matter alone, but only of matter and vacuum.

29 Steven Weinberg, Dreams of a Final Theory, Vintage Books, Random House, 1993, p. 109-110.].

because it depends on the infinite bare mass and charge, and the energy shift... that is infinite because it receives contributions from virtual photons of unlimited energy." [Steven Weinberg].

So a simple charged particle actually involves a polarization of the vacuum involving two charge energy functions — the bare charge and the charge change functions — each of which has a known and recognized COP = <»!

A priori, the conventional system's overall actions must incorporate functions (whether intentional or unintentional) that continuously adjust to provide net equilibrium in that exchange by adjusting the hemorrhaging-out to equal the hemorrhaging-in. In this book, we will spell out just what those unintentional functions are, such as the ubiquitous closed-current-loop circuit, and how to beat them so that excess energy from the vacuum can be utilized by the system to power the loads.

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