The Problem of the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe

As briefly stated earlier, we introduce the notion of the supersystem, consisting of three parts: (i) the system and its dynamics, (ii) the active vacuum and its dynamics, and (iii) the active spacetime curvatures and their dynamics. All three components of the supersystem interact with each other.

In Chapter 9, we explain in some detail how a COP>1.0 EM circuit — and especially a COP»1.0 EM circuit — has an induced flow of negative energy (Dirac sea hole current) from the output section of the system, back through the system, and into the input section. Reaching the input section, if the hole flow is not completely filled by incoming electrons, the remaining Dirac hole current will flow on back into the feeder line from the external power supply, and into the distant power supply itself, eating electrons and electron current all the while.

We also explain our reinterpretation of the unobserved (non-reacted) Dirac hole with negative energy or negative mass, without time reversal and parity reversal. This dramatically differs from the "as observed" (interacted) Dirac positron with positive mass, and with charge-reversal and parity reversal from the electron. The Dirac hole is "as unobserved and non-reacted" and it is still an electron having negative mass and negative energy. The Dirac positron with positive mass, opposite charge, and opposite direction is "as observed and reacted with charged matter". The unobserved Dirac hole is the "cause" of an observational interaction; the Dirac positron is the "effect" of an observational interaction. The two are very different because the cause differs from the effect. Here again, the confusion of cause and effect has had very detrimental consequences in the use of Dirac's electron theory.

Very powerful astronomical phenomena, such as giant astronomical explosions of great energy, involve C0P>1.0 and C0P»1.0 processes, particularly when the unaccounted Heaviside energy flow is accounted for every field and potential interaction with charged mass. Hence all such phenomena also provide very powerful "explosions" of negative energy

(Dirac sea holes moving outward in the vacuum). The negative energy is the equivalent of negative mass, so long as it is unobserved.

So there is a "dark negative energy explosion" in the Dirac Sea vacuum, accompanying every large astronomical explosion seen through our telescopes and other sensors. This accompanying dark negative energy explosion has not been accounted in astrophysics until now.

We thus live in an astronomical universe of neglected "giant dark negative energy explosions" as well as one of accounted "giant positive energy explosions".

The dark (unaccounted) negative energy radiating outward in the vacuum from gamma bursts, x-ray bursts, etc. produces antigravity. The spreading negative energy, moving at light speed, is a change to the vacuum itself, which also interacts upon spacetime to negatively curve it, producing negative gravity. For those energetic processes of COP sufficiently greater than one, the processes produce more antigravity than gravity. As of this writing, we are in fact filing a patent application on this method of performing and producing antigravity, and it will be filed before this book is published.

Over the 14 billion or so years of the observed universe, the dark negative energy content of spacetime has been slowly changing by the results of giant astronomical explosions and other such processes producing negative energy radiated outward into the Dirac sea vacuum. Slowly the vacuum itself has undergone transformation from the perfect Dirac sea with all holes filled by particles, to a vacuum where there is a slowly growing fraction of negative energy (negative mass) unobserved Dirac sea holes.

Thus, slowly the antigravity generated by the gradual altering of "space" (the vacuum) itself has been growing for some 14 billion years. At some point in the past, the excess antigravity effect accumulating in space reached the equal of the "outside" gravity acting upon energetic explosive astronomical phenomena. From that point in time, the antigravity effect has been increasing slowly. The result is that the present violently explosive astronomical phenomena, by adding a sudden and sharp increase in their external space antigravity, produce acceleration away from all positive mass and positive energy phenomena. Hence astronomers now observe the acceleration of the expanding (positive energy/positive mass) universe, instead of the previously expected slowing (due to positive gravity) of the expanding universe (conventional view).

The antigravity-producing phenomena have not been openly investigated in Western science because Western science has arbitrarily discarded COP>1.0 EM systems, primarily with the Lorentz regauging of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations. Hence, Western science has not experimentally studied the type of system that produces the effect in the first place.

On the other hand, it is possible to directly investigate the antigravity-producing phenomenology on the laboratory bench, by utilizing overunity EM systems with very high COP (e.g., COP = 106 or more). The Sweet experiments {231} did in fact produce such phenomenology on the laboratory bench, but these experiments were privately performed under proprietary conditions {232}. We discuss the Sweet experiments and device in a later chapter.

In science, such experiments are quite properly deemed interesting but anecdotal until replicated independently. Similar experiments should certainly be repeated by the scientific community, using various interactions (some given in this book) that develop COP>1.0. The problem is nowhere near as difficult as hot fusion, but it has not been tackled and overcome because of (1) the prevailing and erroneous scientific mindset against COP> 1.0 electromagnetic processes, and (2) the present "kill" of the supersystem and its effects in the standard U(l) electrodynamics model.

In Chapter 8 we further discuss the antigravity effect in practical or potentially practical systems where COP» 1.0.

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