The Suicidal Closed Unitary Current Loop Circuit

The present Lorentz-Maxwell-Heaviside theory, by which EM circuits and electrical power systems are designed, produces only systems in net usable equilibrium with the active vacuum, specifically during the symmetrically regauging discharge of the circuit's excitation energy (Figure 2-7). Hence all present EM systems designed by that model rigorously conform to classical equilibrium thermodynamics, and exhibit a coefficient of performance (COP) of COP<1.0.

Since the Maxwell-Heaviside equations do not restrict the designer to systems in equilibrium with their active environment, some ubiquitous characteristic of the standard circuit approach must be self-enforcing the Lorentz symmetrical condition as far as using any excess free potential energy of the system to freely power loads. That is the closed-loop circuit, as we have discussed. Let us now illustrate what goes on in such a circuit.

Taking into account Figure 2-4, Figure 2-8 shows a modified diagram of what is actually happening between the vacuum and the dipole to power the circuit. Figure 2-9 shows how a pair of conductors constitutes an extended series of parallel dipoles. Once the dipole is formed by dissipating some chemical energy in the battery, the dipole extracts energy from the surrounding vacuum and pours it out of the battery terminals, producing an energy flow filling space around the conductors of the external circuit. Only a very small portion (Figure 2-4) of the very large energy flow is intercepted by the external charges in the conductors, and diverged into the conductors to power up the Drude electrons.

Figure 2-8 Virtual photon flux exchange intensity with the changes of a dipole.

As can be seen from Figure 2-7, half of the energy collected upon the internal electrons to drive them as is expended as work required to pump the spent electrons from the ground return wire back through the source dipole in the battery. This scatters the charges of the dipole (in this case, by changing the chemistry of the battery plates) and destroys the dipole. The other half of the collected energy is dissipated in the external circuit's losses and in the load.

Then some more chemical energy has to be dissipated by the battery to perform work upon the internal charges and restore the dipole (in this case, to change the plate chemistry of the battery plates). So even if this process is 100% efficient, the battery has to dissipate as much chemical energy as was electrically dissipated upon those former dipole charges to scatter them and destroy the dipole.

In Figure 2-7, we show the small internal resistance of the conductors, as well as the load resistor. Half the energy dissipated by j<j) is expended just to forcibly ram the spent electrons back through the back emf of the source dipole. The other half is expended in the circuit's internal losses and in the load resistance. Therefore, less energy is expended as usable work in the resistive load than is expended to destroy the dipole and cut off the flow of free EM energy from the vacuum.

Figure 2-9 Paired conductors as an extended set of dipoles.

The battery has to input as much energy to restore the dipole as was used to destroy it. The battery has to expend at least as much chemical energy as equals half the entire energy originally collected in the external circuit and expended as It must expend chemical energy

The energy RE dissipated as work in the load resistor R is RE < V2 jj(t)<|>(t)dt.

Thus CE>RE, and this system is forced to exhibit

3 mm

As can be seen, this system symmetrically regauges itself during its excitation discharge, so that it self-enforces the Lorentz condition during that period. The circuit self-enforces COP<1.0, even though all the energy — both the energy powering the external circuit and also destroying the internal source dipole in the battery to enforce the Lorentz condition during discharge — is freely received from the active vacuum via the

broken symmetry of the source dipole, once established, in its energetic exchange with the active vacuum.

57 The broken symmetry of opposite charges is one of the broken symmetries predicted by Lee, {13a} and by Lee, Oehme, and Yang, {13b}. Broken symmetry was proven experimentally in early 1957 by Wu et ai, {14}. So profound were the implications for physics that the Nobel Prize was awarded to Lee and Yang in latter 1957, the same year! E.g., see T. D. Lee, "Weak Interactions and Nonconservation of Purity," Nobel Lecture, Dec. 11, 1957 in T. D. Lee, Selected Papers, Gerald Peinbcrg, Ed., Birkhauscr, Boston, 1986, Vol. 1, p. 32-44.

The problem is that the source dipole is destroyed faster than the load is powered, as shown in Figure 2-7. Because of the inexplicable scientific pre-occupation with the conventional closed current loop circuit, the planet and biosphere have been increasingly polluted for more than a century, by burning more hydrocarbons, building more dams, using more nuclear fuel rods, etc. to provide ever more electrical energy.

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