## The Supersystem and Remarks on Gravity Antigravity and Testing

"What might appear to be empty space is, therefore, a seethingferment of virtual particles. A vacuum is not inert and featureless, but alive with throbbing energy and vitality. A 'real' particle such as an electron must always be viewed against this background of frenetic activity. When an electron moves through space, it is actually swimming in a sea ofghostparticles of all varieties - virtual leptons, quarks, and messengers, entangled in a complex melee. The presence of the electron will distort this irreducible vacuum activity, and the distortion in turn reacts back on the electron. Even at rest, an electron is not at rest: it is being continually assaulted by all manner of other particles from the vacuum." [Paul Davies] {554}.

"Space acts on matter, tellingithow to move.. In turn, matter reacts back on space, telling it how to curve." [Wheeler's principle] {555}.

"...the Aharonov-Bohm effect is a local gauge transformation ofthe true vacuum... [which] produces a vector potential from the true vacuum. [This gauge transformation] produces topological charge..., the electromagnetic field, which carries energy, and the vacuum charge current density first proposed by Lehnert... and developed by Lehnert and Roy... ". [M. W. Evans and S. Jeffers] {556}.

"The energy density ( End ) in curved spacetime is given in the Sachs theory by the quaternion-valued expression where AM is the quaternion-valued vector potential and is the quaternion-valued

4-current as given by Sachs ...Equation [1] is an elegant and deeply meaningful expression of the fact that electromagnetic energy density is available from curved spacetime under all conditions; the distinction between field and matter is lost, and the concepts of "point charge " and "point mass" are not present in the theory, as these two concepts represent infinities of the closed-field theory developed by Sachs from the irreducible representations of the Einstein group. The accuracy ofexpression [1] has been tested to the precision of the Lamb shifts in the hydrogen atom without using renormalization ofinfinities. The Lamb shifts can therefore be viewed as the results ofelectromagnetic energy from curved spacetime." [Myron W. Evans] {557}.

"Old habits of thought die hard, and it is not always easy to remember that a particle with negative mass if pushed to the right will move to the left; or that in a given reference frame a particle with imaginary mass can have infinite speed, in which case its energy is zero." "... extremely powerful energy sources may occur if particles of negative mass really exist in nature. [Banesh Hoffman] {558}.

"The observed (3-spatial) positron is a quite different entityfrom the unobserved (4-spatial) Dirac hole. Its direction has been reversed, and its mass and energy have also been reversed. Before the 4-spatial hole in the vacuum has interacted and been observed, it has negative energy and therefore negative mass equivalency, as well as negative charge. As a source charge, it also is the source ofnegative energy fields and negative energy potentials â€” all in the nonobservable 4-state. " [T. E. Bearden, private communication to a correspondent, 2001].

"The...visible structure of orthogonal' 1-networkspossessing coupled open-paths and closed-paths represents only an introductory step in the development ofa correct topological theory for conventional electric networks...An electric network is like an iceberg...Its visible portion is only a smallfraction of the submerged invisible structure. " [Gabriel Kron, who developed special tensor methods and diakoptics to deal with the large number of visible and invisible multidimensional p-networks surrounding the branches of every electric circuit.] {559}.

"...symmetry implies conservation. Since our entire edifice ofinteractions is built on symmetry assumptions, there should be as a result a large number ofconservation laws. The only trouble is that almost all ofthese conservation laws have been violated experimentally. "... "...this difficulty could be resolved by introducing a new element, the vacuum. Instead ofsaying that the symmetry ofall matter is being violated, we suggest that all conservation laws must take both matter and vacuum into account. Ifwe include matter together with vacuum, then an overall symmetry could be restored" [T. D. Lee] {560}.

"One perhaps oversimplified way to deal more conventionally with the new unified field approach to electrodynamic systems is to utilize the notion ofthe 'supersystem', comprised of three components: (I) the ordinary EM system and its dynamicsâ€”conventionally assumingflat spacetime and inert vacuum, (2) the local nonlinear vacuum and its dynamic interactions with the system and with spacetime, and (3) the local curvatures ofspacetime and their dynamic interactions with the system and with the local active vacuum. In the rich feedforward and feedback interactions that result, there emerges a dramaticnewphysics, new electrodynamics, and new chemistry including a new biochemistry. This is in fact a much simplified conceptual approach (good to first order', so to speak) to the multinetwork and multipath work of Gabriel Kron. It also allows the retention ofsymmetry, considered so necessary to particle physicists. [T. E. Bearden, private communication to a correspondent, 2001].

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