The Wiegand Effect

If a Permaloy® or other suitable magnetic wire is properly tensioned and worked by repeated torsion while under tension, the skin of the wire is work-hardened and caused to have different magnetic characteristics from that of the internal core. This type of wire is called a Wiegand wire, or pulse wire, or "self-nucleating magnetic wire" (SNMW™).

When the pulse-wire experiences a certain level of ambient magnetic field strength, it will automatically switch its magnetic state, very sharply, producing a sharp magnetic field pulse. The effect is generally called the Wiegandeffect.

Permanent magnets field causes Wiegand wire to reverse polarities, inducing voltage pulse in the coil Permanent magnet

Permanent magnets field causes Wiegand wire to reverse polarities, inducing voltage pulse in the coil Permanent magnet

Wiegand Wire Technology

_ hardened soft core

Figure 6-27 TheWiegand effect

_ hardened soft core

Figure 6-27 TheWiegand effect

If a coil of many turns of fine electrical conductor is wound around the Wiegand magnetic pulse wire, then when the wire suddenly alters its magnetic state, the sudden magnetic field pulse "cutting" the conductor bundle will produce a sharp electrical pulse. Thus the apparatus produces a sharp pulse of electrical energy, when the ambient magnetic field intensity reaches the pulse-initiation value. No input of outside energy is necessary. The apparatus simply gates the energy from the vacuum when it sharply changes its magnetic polarity.

Wiegand effect sensors may achieve voltage pulses up to a nominal 12 volts, in a typical application.

Numerous patents were issued to Wiegand prior to his death {451a-451h}.

Figure 6-27 diagrammatically shows the primary parts of a typical Wiegand sensor application, where the Wiegand wire is also known as a pulse wire. The operation of the pulse wire itself is shown in Figure 6-28. Figure 6-29 shows a typical rotary Wiegand effect pulse transmitter.

Wire saturated Shell and core magnetized In same direction

Small reverse field switches core in reverse direction

Reverse field increases and switches shell in reverse direction also This large change in magnetic flux induces a pulse in surrounding pickup coil

Figure 6-28 Operation ofthe Wiegand effect in a pulse wire.

Pulse wires find many modern "switching" uses, since one does not have to connect them to a power supply in order to obtain the electrical signal pulse generated in a magnetic field as it changes. The magnetic experience of the wires can be arranged (using a "resetting magnet") to automatically reset the pulse wire to its original condition after the initiation magnet has fired it. Many identification cards for personal access to restricted facilities

Wiegand Wire

Small reverse field switches core in reverse direction

Reverse field increases and switches shell in reverse direction also This large change in magnetic flux induces a pulse in surrounding pickup coil

Figure 6-28 Operation ofthe Wiegand effect in a pulse wire.

use these wires. Some magnetic memories use the effect. At least one European automobile firm has even used Wiegand wires to trigger the timing of automotive ignition systems.

The pulse characteristics created internally by the Wiegand wire represent a sharp, asymmetrical, self-regauging of the magnetics. The combined magnetic field consisting of the ambient magnetic field and the Wiegand wire magnetic pulse is momentarily a nonconservative magnetic field. It follows that a closed-loop integration J F ■ dl around some paths in the combined magnetic field of the system do not sum to zero.

MAGNETS

MAGNETS

Magnetic Pulse Generator
Figure 6-29 Operation of the rotary Wiegand pulse generator

In theory, at least, it should be possible to utilize something like the magnetic Wankel engine together with exactly self-triggering and self-resetting Wiegand units to form a self-powering permanent magnet motor. In short, referring to our discussion of the magnetic Wankel engine, it might be possible to use a special Wiegand sensor and pulse generator to furnish the properly timed pulse to the coil that enables the continuous operation of the Wankel engine. Obviously this type combination would have occurred to the Japanese scientists working on the magnetic Wankel engine.

We accent that the resulting system would be an open dissipative system, far from equilibrium in its energetic exchange with the vacuum during the Wiegand pulsing. The disequilibrium is achieved by the momentary self-regauging of the magnetic gap in the magnetic Wankel engine.

My colleagues and I have experimented with Wiegand wires and Wiegand sensors to a limited extent. The effect is quite real, fully documented in the scientific literature, and the wires and sensors are not too expensive. A typical coil of 1,000 turns on a 3-cm Wiegand wire will produce pulses of about 2 volts in a 1,000-ohm resistor. The pulse width (half maximum height) is about 20 microseconds. Essentially the Wiegand wires are immune to stray magnetic fields. Viewed on an oscilloscope, the pulses are very clean without spurious oscillations or hash. The field required to switch a typical Wiegand wire is typically about 150 Oersteds. The resetting field is quite a bit smaller, being about -20 Oersteds. With further work, it is probably possible to come up with Wiegand wires whose coils produce up to 20 Volts in a 1,000-ohm resistor. If 25 of these 20-volt Wiegand pulse generators wired in series could be induced to fire simultaneously across a 1,000-ohm resistor, something like a momentary half-watt device could be built. That might be enough to operate a very small version of the magnetic Wankel engine, etc. purely for demonstration purposes.

For practical power, of course, one would need to find a way to increase the power output in each Wiegand generator pulse. So far, no one has been able to successfully find a way to do it, at least to our knowledge. If the reader finds a way to do that, then the reader should certainly patent the process and use it in a self-powering magnetic Wankel engine!

So to those experimenters wishing to experiment with something relatively inexpensive, we would suggest investigating the possibility of incorporating Wiegand units into a magnetic Wankel-type small magnetic motor, and attempt to get a self-powering little unit, or try to build a self-powering version of the rotary Wiegand pulse generator. It is at least possible in theory, and if achieved in practice it will prove that self-powering EM engines are perfectly possible.

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