## Time Is Energy and Must Be Considered As Such

In a physics model, one's choice of fundamental units is arbitrary.10 As an example, in one type of physics only a single fundamental unit — length — is employed. All other entities then become functions of length.

We are also free to choose the joule as the single fundamental unit in our physics model. The result that mass is a function of energy is now familiar and quite accepted, by the famous formula E = mc2. Indeed, as can be seen, in that equation mass and energy are one and the same thing, since c2 is a dimensionless constant. However, in our new model time becomes a function of energy similarly, and thus time is identically energy.

Let us perform a thought experiment. Suppose we take some spatial EM energy in 3-space, and compress it by the factor c2. What can we do with it? If we leave it there in 3-space, it is known as "mass". If we place it on the fourth Minkowski axis ict, it is known as time because t is the only variable on that axis, and the only "place we can set it".

So to first order, time has the same energy density as mass. Multiplying an amount of time t (in seconds) by c2 gives the decompressed spatial energy E that the time t will transduce into. In short, E = tc2 also.

Now we notice what special relativity has to say about the relationship between time-energy and mass-energy. When the mass-energy increases

10 E.g., see Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd Edition, Wiley, 1975, p. 811812; ibid., 3rd Edition, 1998, p. 775. Jackson wryly remarks on how much excess heat and passion have been unnecessarily expended on that subject.

(e.g., as a function of velocity), time "dilates" or "decreases". In other words (hint), there is a sort of special new extension to the conservation of energy law: If mass (3-space) gains some 3-spatial energy, then time loses some time-energy. Since time is spatial EM energy compacted by c2, then the relativistic energy changes in the time domain are enormously greater than the corresponding relativistic changes in spatial energy in the photon. To the external 3-space observer, this is the injection of negentropy with respect to the present 3-spatial conservation of energy law. In the reverse case (as when the object reduces its velocity), if mass (3-space) loses some energy, then time gains some time because the time dilation reduces — i.e., time contracts or densifies (less time has more energy). To the observer, this is the production of entropy with regard to 3-space energy conservation. Yet the observer misses the fact that, accompanying entropy in 3-space is negentropy in time energy on the 4th Minkowski axis, and vice versa.

We believe this to be a rather dramatic extension to the previous concept of entropy in thermodynamics. We get 3-space entropy in physical processes only by gaining 4th dimensional negentropy accordingly. One can thus appreciate the impact upon the entire subject of thermodynamics, once time-energy is accounted and the new interplay of entropy and negentropy are accounted. We believe that this mechanism may involve the fundamental mechanism for both entropy and negentropy. Neither is produced alone; both are always produced in tandem. This of course is not what we "observe" since all observation is 3-spatial. Hence to observe the system and see 3-space entropy or negentropy is to hide the simultaneous 4th dimensional negentropy or entropy that unobservably accompanied the observable that we did see.

Again we call attention to the original meaning of entropy: the dissipation of potential (i.e., potential energy).

Once we understand that time is a special form of energy (we discuss this shortly), we may input the energy required to "move heat energy backwards" — i.e., we may directly engineer negentropy — by transducing some time-energy into 3-spatial energy. We can do it easily by time reversal, and every charge in the universe does it already. On the other hand, we can do it by breaking the symmetry of time-energy flow — which is as simple as forming a little dipole. The broken symmetry of unlike charges — and therefore the dipole — was discovered by Lee and Yang {13a-13c}, who strongly predicted it in 1956. Wu et al. {14} confirmed it experimentally in early 1957. This was such a revolutionary

change to physics that Lee and Yang were awarded the Nobel Prize in the same year, 1957 — an almost unprecedented action.

Its broken symmetry tells us that the dipole's unlike charges continuously absorb virtual photon energy from the active vacuum, transduce it into real observable energy, and pour out real, observable EM energy in all directions in 3-space. That puts an entirely different perspective on what really powers every dipolar EM circuit; i.e., what produces the flow of energy pouring from the terminals of every generator and battery, filling all space around the external circuit and its conductors. The EM energy pouring from the generator or the battery is not due to the generator outputting some of its own available internal energy (from the shaft energy input to the generator, transduced into magnetic field energy inside the generator, and then dissipated to separate the charges and form the source dipole between the generator terminals) or the battery transducing and outputting some of its available chemical energy (which is only dissipated inside the battery to separate the internal charges and form the source dipole between the battery terminals). We will explain that later, and explain how any dipole or charge simply pours out real, observable energy continuously in all directions, without any observable input of energy. The input energy is there, but it is in unobservable (virtual) form.

In 1971 while a graduate student at the Georgia Institute of Technology, I realized the mechanism that generates the "passage of time" insofar as the observer is concerned {15}. With a little more work, this gave the clue in the 1990s for the mechanism generating little momentary time-reversal zones (TRZs) {16} in the electrolyte utilized in cold fusion experiments. Hence we proposed the use of little time-reversal zones forming momentarily in the electrolyte after loading of the palladium lattice of the electrodes with hydrogen or deuterium. Such time-reversal zones can form in the region of excessive positive charge accumulation, since positive charge can be said to receive negative EM energy from the time domain and output negative EM energy in 3-space.

This led to uncovering an entire class of new nuclear reactions — fusion reactions at low spatial energy but high temporal energy — in these little temporary time-reversal zones (TRZs), in which like charges attract and unlike charges repel {17}, followed by rapid decay of the TRZs where the normal law of attraction and repulsion is restored again.

In theory, a fermion cannot be time-reversed because the Pauli exclusion principle prohibits it. However, a boson can be time-reversed, so fermions can be time-reversed in pairs, where each pair acts as a quasi-boson. The

TRZ completely overcomes and reverses the "coulomb barrier" between a pair of like fermion charges.11

As an example, two deuterium ions in a little TRZ would momentarily form a quasi-nucleus of helium, since the two positive deuterons are attracted so closely that each enters the strong force region of the other. At the same time, the strong force is weakened by the partial time reversal of the gluon forces, so that the quarks are nearly freed. As the other ions in the surrounding solution then move to destroy the momentary time-reversal zone, their movement forces the TRZ to decay back to a time-forward zone — with the decay action starting from every point in spacetime inside the nucleons themselves12. The TRZ decay-induced action thus strikes the nearly freed quarks first, and decay can occur by easy quark flipping while the gluon forces are still much reduced and not back to normal strength. Hence as the gluon forces return toward normal, the quasi-nucleus decays by the strong force increasing and overpowering and drawing the quasi-nucleus into a full-blown helium ion — i.e., an alpha particle —flipping the partially-freed quarks as necessary to do so (that is not necessary in equation [1] below.

During decay of the TRZ, the weakened strong force grows much more rapidly than the Coulomb force zeroes and then increases. Consequently, the quasi-nucleus of two D+ ions merely draws together due to the rapidly increasing strong force, forming an alpha particle without quark flipping. Four H+ ions — four protons — in a quasi-nucleus in a TRZ will undergo quark flipping twice when the TRZ decays, thereby resulting in an alpha particle.). So that explained the anomalous formation of the alpha particles in the experiments. The interaction for two ions of deuterium is given by:

11 In a TRZ, the law of attraction and repulsion of charged particles is reversed.

12 Any moment in time exists everywhere simultaneously throughout the universe. In short, time is a multiple connection in 3-space. Hence in any time-reversal zone (a TRZ) where time is reversed, then starts fading away and back to a time-forward zone (TRZ), the changes induced by the "fading back to TFZ" simultaneously involve every point in the 3-space of that TRZ that is changing (decaying). An easy change is quark flipping, since the quarks are almost freed in the TRZ to begin with. The reason the reaction proceeds in that direction is that the recovery of the strong force is much faster than the restoring of normal electrical repulsion, hence the quasi-nucleus is drawn further together into a full nucleus, constituting a legitimate nuclear transmutation at low spatial energy but high time-energy.

This interaction between two deuterons in solution does not occur in a normal time-forward zone because of the coulomb barrier preventing the two deuterons from entering each other's strong force region and acting as a quasi-nucleus of helium, so particle physicists have missed it. It does exist in a time-reversal zone; such zones form and then decay back into normal time-forward zones. This is possible because the coulomb barrier is momentarily reversed. The use of such TRZs in particle physics opens up thousands of new nuclear reactions, all at low 3-spatial energy, but involving very high time-energy. Because of the extreme energy density of time, these time-energy-induced reactions are actually much higher-energy reactions than high-energy physicists presently consider and utilize! Indeed, it opens up a new kind of far more energetic "high energy physics".

Cold fusion experimenters have unwittingly opened a window upon a vast new particle physics, previously overlooked by our scientists because they have disregarded the use of time-energy, time reversal zones, and transmutation of time-energy into 3-spatial energy in their nuclear reactions. However, a few physical theorists attempting to better explain particle physics have recognized the importance of the time domain, and probing work in that respect is occasionally done {18}. In our view, it is not accidental that more than 600 successful cold fusion experiments have been obtained, by a variety of researchers in many labs in several nations. We strongly suggest that much of the conventional physics community has firmly placed its collective head in the sand, and is refusing to grapple with the startling new time-energy physics that is being initiated by cold fusion research.

In 1999 (published in 2000) {12} we finally discovered a great new symmetry in EM energy flow, whereby time-energy flow symmetry and 3-space energy flow symmetry are each individually broken, while an overlooked and more fundamental 4-symmetry energy flow — between the time-domain and 3-space — is sustained. The result is that all EM energy in 3-space comes from the time domain locally and returns to the time domain locally, in a giant negentropic circulation.13 Together by the

13 This is also understandable from the implications of the observation process, which yields a frozen 3-space snapshot existing only at a single instant. Thus any 3-space energy existing there in that frozen instant, had to just come from 4-space (from the time-domain via the giant negentropy process, if we take the view that "the past exists only in time itself".). For the frozen snapshot to "change", time must be added to it, which converts it to a 4-space process again. So the "3-spatial" observed

discovery of relevant quantum field theory work by Mandl and Shaw {19}, this now lends strong support to the use of time-energy in physics as a practical matter for strenuous investigation.

As an example, Mandl and Shaw {19} treat the four polarizations of the photon. Neither the longitudinal nor the scalar photon is directly observable, but in the presence of charge the two are observable in combination, where they manifest as the "instantaneous" Coulomb (i.e., electrostatic) potential. This argument, translated from particle terminology to wave terminology, directly fits our re-interpretation {12} of Whittaker's 1903 decomposition of the scalar potential {85}. For the combining mechanism of the fields of the photons, we must account for the field as a ubiquitously assumed interaction with the detecting/observing unit point charge. Thus we must account for the absorption of the incoming time-polarized wave or photon, the transduction of that excitation energy of the charge into longitudinal EM wave/photon energy, and subsequent emission of that excitation energy in 3-space. That is what happens for a negative charge. For the positive charge, the process is time-reversed, hence occurs in opposite fashion. Or as an alternative, the positive charge can be said to continuously receive negative time-energy from the time domain and emit negative spatial EM

energy.

There is an energy polarization transduction function of charge, whereby it transforms received time-polarized photon energy into emitted longitudinal photon energy in 3-space (for the negative charge, and vice versa, for a time-reversed positive charge). This transduction appears to have been overlooked in physics prior to our recognition of it. It can in fact be used to generate an acceptable definition of charge itself. Charge is the energy must come from an immediately previous 4-space process, and must return to an immediately following 4-space process.

14 As we will find in our chapter on antigravity, there is good reason to treat the positive charge as a source of negative energy and negative energy fields. However, this is pertinent only prior to observation of the charge, while it is still a 4-spatial unobserved negative energy electron entity. For the observable charge, one has already conjugated — after all, the positron is observed as if it were an electron going backwards in time, which we observe as an electron with its charge reversed and with parity reversal (of its spatial direction). For the observable charge, we have already reversed the negative energy fields into positive energy fields by simply reversing their direction and the time associated with the photon (quantum of the EM field).

continuously active entity which performs that ongoing process or those ongoing processes of energy transduction between the time domain and 3-space (between the causal unobserved 4-space process and the observed 3space snapshot). Or in other words, it is an active process connecting 4-space cause and 3-space effect, and connecting the unobserved (such as virtual) to the observed (such as mass).

So for a dipole, the "causal" time-polarized EM wave or photon as a 4-space entity comes to the dipole15 (3-spatial as observed) and is absorbed by the detecting negative charge or dipole, then is re-emitted as the longitudinally polarized EM wave or photon in 3-space. That absorption and remission is what charge does, since it is an entity for performing that process. The emitted energy in turn is absorbed by the nearby positive charge, retransduced into time-energy, and reemitted back to the time domain. This ongoing very special 4-space energy circulation (even with a virtual charge in the vacuum) is what a scalar potential identically is and is doing, at every spatial point of itself, inducing vacuum polarization and "point dipoles" in the virtual state in the process. Recognition of these missing functions allowed at last a solution to the long-vexing problem of the source charge and its associated fields and their energy, often called the most difficult problem in both quantum and classical electrodynamics {68}. We discuss that solution later.

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