## Transduction Between Time Charging and Spatial Energy Charging

The oscillating energy (spatial and temporal) in a moving EM wave in the vacuum represents a moving oscillation of spacetime curvature. Simply put, the so-called electromagnetic wave in space is actually a gravitational wave in space, since it is an oscillation of the local energy density of spacetime and therefore an oscillation of the curvature of local spacetime. It "transports" gravitons (scalar photon/longitudinal photon pairs) rather than merely photons. So let us now consider it as a gravitational wave.

In the absorber under special conditions, a small fraction of the graviton wave time-density absorbed will sometimes change (transduce) its time-energy into what we call transverse photon energy effects {618}, with something like a 1017 gain in spatial energy injoules compared to the time in seconds that actually transduces. In other words, 1 second of time transducing into EM transverse wave energy (using the standard EM modeling approach) will yield approximately 1017 joules of spatial EM energy. Since one can change energy from one form to another, one can change time-energy into 3-spatial energy and 3-spatial energy into time-energy, the two being merely opposite sides of the same coin, and both always involved in any situation exhibiting electrodynamic dipolarity.

In one's physics model, the choice of fundamental units is purely arbitrary. Everything can be expressed in a single fundamental unit, as pointed out by Jackson (see quotation from Jackson at the beginning of this chapter).

In a situation where 3-symmetry and t-symmetry in EM energy flow are broken, part of the time charging of the atomic electrons (or ions) sometimes changes (transduces) into spatial energy charging and viceversa. This cross-dimensional decay of time-excitation states results in the emission of some extra transverse photons that may be either photons or antiphotons, depending on the exact interactions. The point is, tremendous excess EM spatial energy can appear and either be emitted as heat or interacted to perform new nuclear interactions as extraordinarily high local energy density. This is the master mechanism enabling anomalous cold fusion transmutation reactions. The amount of time transduced will be so small that it will usually escape notice, unless stringent efforts are used to measure changes in the local flow of time.

The excess photon energy (excess 3-space EM energy) appearing in these rather random but powerful transduction interactions often accounts for the production of anomalous excess heat - for example, as occurs in many cold fusion experiments. Where scalar interferometry is maximized, a more exact action will be detailed below for the specific nuclear transformations that occur by novel new nuclear reactions. These novel nuclear reactions occur at low initial spatial energy but with some time-energy transducing into additional very high spatial energy to initiate the interactions.

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