Use of the Aharonov Bohm Effect in the MEG

From the standpoint of electrical power systems, our own interest in the AB effect focused upon one important characteristic: the clear separation (and localization) of the B-field (the swirl component of the A-potential), leaving the remaining "natural" uncurled field-free A-potential as a free linear flow of energy current in the vacuum. This operation is iterative, and is produced by the core for every B-field produced in the transformer section. So a localized dynamic B-field makes nonlocalized dynamic E-fields, which themselves make further localized dynamic B-fields, which then further make nonlocalized dynamic E-fields, and so on. The result is a very extensive chain of feedforward and feedback field energy loops.

7.5.1 Separation of the Swirled and Linear A-Potentials The AB effect has long been known in toroidal coils and in long solenoids. In a theoretically perfect toroid, for example, the AB effect separates and localizes the entire B-field inside the toroid, while the curl-free magnetic vector potential A appears in surrounding space outside the toroid. By our new interpretation and hypothesis, based on AIAS theoretical work published in the literature, this curl-free A-potential represents a

203 204

nonlocalized longitudinal EM energy current in space.203,204 Further, the curl-free A-potential is an extra flow of EM energy that can be intercepted, collected, and used while also still using the entire "normal" B-field energy localized in the core. The neat thing is that the E-field made from the

203 This is addressed in M. W. Evans, T. E. Bearden, and A. Labounsky, "The Most General Form of the Vector Potential in Electrodynamics," Found. Phys. Lett, 15(3), June 2002, p. 245-261. See also M. W. Evans et al., "The Aharonov-Bohm Effect as the Basis of Electromagnetic Energy Inherent in the Vacuum," Found. Phys. Lett, (in review).

204 See also B. Lehnert and J. Scheffel, "On the Minimum Elementary Charge of an

Extended Electromagnetic Theory," Physica Scripta, vol. 65, 2002, p. 200. In extended EM theory, the elementary charge may no longer be considered as a fundamental constant of nature, but is expressed in terms of the Planck constant and the velocity of light.

A-potential, and thus providing the actual intercepted and collected EM energy, can be made as large as desired, merely by manipulating the rise time and decay time of the pulses used to perturb the A-potential external to the core. Further, the same perturbation also perturbs the B-field flux in the core, giving rise to nonlocalized E-fields whose magnitude again depends upon the rise time and decay time of the perturbing pulses. Hence the dA/dt and the dB/dt become energy amplification causes, where all the excess F-field energy is furnished freely from the vacuum via a special kind of asymmetrical regauging and gauge freedom. In that sense, the MEG produces and applies a hitherto unrecognized form of direct field energy amplification by asymmetrical regauging.

We noted that this mechanism represents the formation of a locally curved spacetime205 and engineering of the magnitude of the curvature itself. By freely increasing the local spacetime curvature, the appearance of additional EM energy density in the region follows a priori. That is, one still has all the B-field energy produced by the permanent magnet, but it is just confined to the space inside the core. All the energy one "pays for" or inputs with current and voltage to the input coil, in the normal sense, is the energy to perturb the localized B-field and the curl-free A-potential. However, even before perturbation to evoke energy amplification, there is already additional energy current that has appeared outside the core, where the magnetic field B would have normally extended. All the A-potential energy 06 is "extra" energy in addition to the normal B-field energy that

205 More accurately there is one specific curvature of spacetime in the core of the MEG, representing the confined magnetic field B (the localized swirling A-potential), and there is another different curvature of spacetime outside the localization zone, filled with the nonlocalized curl-free (non-swirling) A-potential as a nonlocalized linear energy flow in space. Further, in the MEG we freely change and increase the magnitude of those spacetime curvatures, by the rate of change of the input energy rather than by its magnitude, and hence we easily increase the magnitude of the energy density of local space both inside and outside the core. That is the fundamental principle of the MEG"s energy amplification (free regauging).

206 Some scientists even deny that the curl-free magnetic vector potential has any energy! We answer that it produces energetic effects upon charged particles, hence must either contain energy itself or direct and gate the interaction of some local vacuum energy with those charges. In the MEG, the uncurled A-potential is oscillated, which does not appear to yield a transverse EM E-field wave at all. Instead, it appears to yield a longitudinal E-field wave with an associated scalar KM wave in the time domain. We also explained what appears to happen to the concomitant B-field wave produced by any changing E-field in the secondary would otherwise have appeared out there but is now confined inside the core.

Further, the uncurled A-potential outside the core reduces its magnitude only inversely as the radial distance, whereas the normal B-field that would otherwise be there in the absence of localization would have reduced its magnitude inversely as the square of the radial distance. This far less rapid fall-off of the magnitude of the nonlocalized curl-free A-potential than the former nonlocalized magnetic field B can result in a remarkable increase in communications range — when a normal EM field antenna with oscillating EM field transmissions is compared to a curl-free A-potential antenna radiating the same power but as curl-free A-potential oscillating transmissions. Golden207 has applied that effect for long-range communications.

With the application of the free Aharonov-Bohm effect produced by the core material and permanent magnet combination, rigorously there has appeared much more available EM energy from the local vacuum than the energy one inputs to the device as one's input energy "payment". Again, this is because the system is an open system far from equilibrium with the active vacuum processes such as the appearance of the uncurled A-potential and the iterative appearance of powerful extra B-fields and E-fields. The rise time and decay time of the input perturbation pulses produces an energy amplification effect both in the core and in space outside the core. When one utilizes this extra uncurled A-potential energy, as well as the now-confined B-field energy, as well as the extra B-fields and E-fields appearing from the iterative processes, then one can extract and use more energy than one himself "paid for" or input to perform the perturbation. Indeed, one can easily extract and use more energy from the curl-free A-potential alone, than one has input. By simply controlling the rise time and decay time of the input pulses, the magnitudes of the resulting E-fields formed in the uncurled A-potential (and in the perturbed trapped B-field perturbations inside the core) can be controlled at will.

(output) coils of the transformer section, etc. The core material withdraws and holds localized, all such magnetic fields formed in the internal MEG core processes.

207 In the late 1970s Frank Golden demonstrated such an uncurled A-potential antenna which attained a range of 20 miles for a tiny CB radio, compared to a range of only 1 mile for the same CB radio with a normal EM field antenna. The energy density of the potential drops off inversely as the distance, while the energy density of the field drops off inversely as the square of the distance.

We also point out that all these amplified E-fields produced by multiple actions have both a conventional Poynting energy flow component and an unaccounted, much larger Heaviside energy flow component. Thus the total energy amplification factor can be very large (several orders of magnitude). With efficient interception and collection, in the future we expect to be able to produce at least 100 kilowatts of power out of the same size core and buildup now producing 80 watts or less in a highly nonoptimized set of laboratory experiment MEGs.

We again call the reader's attention to our previous discussions in this book, showing that all EM energy in EM circuits comes from the vacuum anyway (particle physics view) or from the time-axis (relativistic view). This has previously been hidden by the failure of classical electrodynamics to solve the source charge problem, which we also solved in this book after our paper {12} in 2000. Circuit theorists avoided it by indirectly assuming the source charges freely created from nothing all the EM energy in their fields and potentials. The use of the assumed fields and potentials and their Poynting energy was calculated, but never was the source of those fields, potentials, and their energy presented or accounted.

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