Work and Energy

Doing work is defined as changing the form of energy. No energy is lost per se when work is done; the energy is only changed from one form to

96 The reason is that all 3-space EM energy — in the circuit or elsewhere — must come from the time domain to each 3-space point and return from that point to the time domain. The scalar potential (voltage) actually is an ongoing process whereby, for any interacting charge, energy in the time-domain and energy in 3-space are functionally combined in that 4-circulation at every point dipole in space. In quantum field theory, e.g. as shown by Mandl and Shaw {19}, the combination of the time-polarized photon and the longitudinal photon in 3-space is observed as the instantaneous scalar potential, but neither photon is individually observable. We comment that an "observable" 3-space potential is the result of an iterative set ofd/dt differentiations of the ongoing "combination" of scalar (time-polarized) photons having their energy oscillations in the time domain, with longitudinal photons having their energy oscillations in 3-space along their line of motion. Hence each d/dt differentiation of the ongoing 4-space combination yields the instantaneous 3-space potential. Cumulating, one has the ordinary 3-space potential or "voltage" of macro electrodynamics.

another. All the energy since the beginning of the universe is still present,97 and it is still repeatedly changing its form to do work, over and over. The point is, a single initial joule of energy can be "used" (changed in form) to do more than one joule of work, if multiple changes of form occur serially. Onejoule ofenergy changing its form gives onejoule of work, only if a single and total change of form ofthatjoule ofenergy occurs and then no further change of form occurs. If the joule changes form once, a joule of work is done and a joule of energy still remains in a second form. If this second form of the joule of energy is not lost, but is retained and then changed in form, a second joule of work is performed and there is still a joule of energy left in different form. And so on. Tricking a system to self-induce multiple iterative form changes of each joule of input energy (or at least of some fraction of each input joule), without losing the energy after each change of form, is one way of providing COP>1.0 in a system.

Remember that COP (coefficient of performance) is best defined as the usable work output obtained, divided by the EM energy that the operator inputs. Since "usable work output" is just usable "change of form of the energy", it can be seen that multiple changes of form of every joule of energy input by the operator can lead to COP>1.0.

This illustrates that one must be careful in applying the law of conservation of energy. For a thorough analysis, several features must be identified and accounted: (i) The flow of the energy impinging upon the collection, (ii) the collector itself and the type of collection process utilized, (iii) the linear or nonlinear operation of the collection/collecting process, (iv) the dissipation process used to dissipate the collecting mechanism, (v) what happens to the energy flow that was collected and then its collection "dissipated", (vi) what type of energy flow was collected, and then its collecting "dissipated", (vii) what happens to the collector after the dissipation interaction, (viii) what happens to the energy in different form after each previous change of form, (ix) whether singlepass or multiple-pass of the energy flow is used, (x) whether single collection or multiple collecting is used, and (xi) the effects of any nsymmetrical regauging of a local component or region (e.g., as in simply

97 However, "present" means in spacetime, not just in 3-space. The EM energy we think of as being in 3-space is macroscopically in continuous circulation from the tine domain to 3-space and back to the time domain. Microscopically it is in continual circulation.

increasing one of the potentials of the region) that in turn acts as a free energy flow.

See again Figure 2-4 in Chapter 2. In general, the available energy flow surrounding a circuit will be far greater than the intercepted and collected energy in that circuit, particularly in a "single pass" collection — i.e., where the impinging energy only passes once. In analyzing a system or circuit, one must be very careful to ascertain whether the system utilizes any mechanisms to enhance and increase the energy collection fraction. If it does, then a necessary (but not sufficient) criterion for COP>1.0 has been identified in the system. Letokhov's negative absorption of the medium (i.e., excess energy emission) {256} and Bohren's experiment {257} are examples. Bohren's experiment is easily replicated by any nonlinear optics lab, and outputs 18 times as much energy as the conventionally calculated energy input.98

If the impinging Heaviside nondiverged component of the energy flow beyond the collecting/collector is rerouted and passed back to impinge again in the system — even on another collector or other collectors — this must also be taken into account.

Conventionally, the "magnitude" of the fields99 E and H in the Poynting (collected) energy flow S = E x H are "defined" by the collection from the fields by an assumed unit point static charge at each point in space. In short, the conventional fields have already been "defined" as a standard linear collection upon standard charged mass, from the field entities as they

98 Energy conservation is not violated! Instead, the conventional calculation assumes a static intercepting unit point charge, which has the minimum reaction cross section in the stream of bidirectional longitudinal EM energy flows comprising the potential, etc. By placing the intercepting charged particles into particle resonance, the particles' reaction cross section is increased because each resonating charge sweeps out a greater geometrical cross sectional area. Hence the charges collect more energy from the energy flow comprising any "field" (actually field intensity) or "potential" (actually potential intensity) than is assumed in the standard input energy calculation. In short, Bohren's experiment takes advantage of that arbitrarily discarded Heaviside energy flow component that remains and is present but not considered in the conventional Poynting calculation and field intensity calculation. The experiment in fact proves the existence of the unaccounted but ubiquitous giant Heaviside nondiverged EM energy flow.

99 At best, the 3-space point intensity of each 4-space field is so defined, for a forthcoming reaction with unit point static charge, and where the forthcoming reaction does not involve lingering time - charging but only simple time-excitation followed by full decay of the time-excitation via normal photon emission.

exist in 4-spaceprior to interception and collection, and where the collector itself is absolutely fixed and "static". So nonlinearity in energy flow collection — by additional disruption of the impinging energy flow induced by the dynamics of the collector itself— may easily increase the "reaction cross section" of the collector. The static reaction cross section of a unit point static coulomb and the dynamic reaction of a unit point resonant coulomb may differ appreciably.

Without stating it this clearly, Bohren has shown that the interaction cross section for a single-pass collection by one static particle may be increased by a factor of 18 in a given example, by inducing resonance and thus increasing the "collection" dynamics of the collecting particle in the impinging S-flow {257}. The work has been independently substantiated by Paul and Fischer {258}. It also is a direct proof of the existence of Heaviside's neglected nondivergent energy flow component surrounding every field and charge interaction.

So indeed there are C0P>1.0 EM processes in the literature. The Heaviside component also pouring from the terminals of every generator and battery, already proves that every generator and battery ever made already was and is a COP> 1.0 energy transducer, becausefar more energy pours from the terminals of the generator and battery than the shaft energy input to the generator or the chemical energy dissipated in the battery

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