Subvolume C Renewable Energy

Title page I

List of Autors V

Preface VII

1 Survey of renewable energy [K. Heinloth] 1

1.1 Introduction: Renewable energy in the past, at present and in the future 1

1.2 Worldwide demand on energy and potential of renewable energy 2

1.3 Technologies to convert renewable primary energy 5

1.4 Possible utilization of the different kinds of renewable energy 7

1.4.1 Hydropower to produce electricity 7

1.4.2 Wind energy 7

1.4.3 Sun light 7

1.4.4 Biomass 8

1.4.5 Heat from earth interior 8

1.4.6 Heat from water, soil and air 9

1.4.7 Survey of main obstacles to increase the use of renewable energy by large 9

1.5 Synergy effects of extensive use of renewable energy 9

1.6 References for 1 10

2 Hydroelectric power 11

2.1 Introduction to hydroelectric power [Th. Strobl, F. Zunic] 11

2.1.1 Development of hydro power 12

2.1.2 Water power equation 14

2.1.3 Energy output 15

2.1.4 Economical aspects of water power 17

2.1.5 References for 2.1 and additional literature 18

2.2 River power plants [Th. Strobl, F. Zunic] 19

2.2.1 Types of river power plants 19

2.2.1.1 Storage capacity 19

2.2.1.2 Pressure head 20

2.2.1.3 Installed capacity 20

2.2.1.4 Other definitions 20

2.2.2 Positioning river power plants 21

2.2.3 Diversion canal power plants 22

2.2.4 Components of hydroelectric plants 23

2.2.4.1 Power house 23

2.2.4.2 Turbine layout 24

2.2.4.3 Cavitation 26

2.2.5 Auxiliary Buildings 27

2.2.5.2 Sluice 28

2.2.6 Ecological aspects of hydro power plants 29

2.2.6.1 Residual flow 29

2.2.6.2 Fish passages 31

2.2.6.3 Effects on the groundwater table 32

2.2.7 References for 2.2 33

2.3 High pressure power plants [E. Puerer, G. Goekler] 34

2.3.1 Introduction 34

2.3.1.1 Purpose and demand 34

2.3.1.1.1 Energy production 34

2.3.1.1.2 Multi purpose schemes 34

2.3.1.2 Layout and design 35

2.3.1.2.1 Catchment area inflow, water intake altitude 35

2.3.1.2.2 Reservoir volume, storage capacity 37

2.3.1.2.3 Determination of capacity of a HPPP 37

2.3.1.2.4 Efficiency of HPPPs 37

2.3.2 Types of high pressure power plants 38

2.3.2.1 General aspects 38

2.3.2.2 HPPP with reservoir 38

2.3.2.3 HPPP without reservoir 39

2.3.2.4 HPPP at the toe of a high dam 40

2.3.3 Intake and storage 40

2.3.3.1 Concrete dams 40

2.3.3.1.1.1 Constructive particularities for mass concrete 43

2.3.3.1.1.2 Special methods of construction: RCC and RCD 43

2.3.3.1.3 Other types of concrete dams 45

2.3.3.2 Earth- and rockfill dams 45

2.3.3.2.1 Types, conception and linings 46

2.3.3.2.2 Foundation, sealing in the subsoil 47

2.3.3.3 Safety aspects of dams 48

2.3.3.4 Intake structures for diversion 49

2.3.3.4.1 Intake structure (weir) 49

2.3.3.4.2 Power intake 50

2.3.3.5 Bottom and medium outlets 50

2.3.3.6 Spillways 51

2.3.3.6.1 Types of spillways 51

2.3.3.6.2 Transition and energy dissipation 52

2.3.4 Water conduits for a HPPP 53

2.3.4.1 Free surface canals 53

2.3.4.2 Free surface tunnels 53

2.3.4.3 Pressure tunnels 54

2.3.4.3.1 Tunnels without lining and sealing 55

2.3.4.3.2 Tunnels with lining and without sealing 55

2.3.4.3.3 Tunnels with lining and sealing 56

2.3.4.3.3.1 Pre-stressed concrete lining 56

2.3.4.3.3.2 Lining with plastic membranes 56

2.3.4.3.3.3 Steel lining 56

2.3.4.3.3.4 Thin-walled steel lining 57

2.3.4.3.3.5 Pressure tunnels with conventional or pre-stressed reinforcement 57

2.3.4.4 Surge tanks 57

2.3.4.5 Pressure shaft 59

2.3.4.6 Penstocks 59

2.3.4.6.1 Penstock manifold 60

2.3.5 Powerhouse of a HPPP 61

2.3.5.1 General arrangement of the powerhouse 61

2.3.5.2 Open air powerhouse 63

2.3.5.3 Underground power stations 63

2.3.5.4 Powerhouse at the toe of high dams 64

2.3.5.5 Tailrace 65

2.3.6 Economical aspects 66

2.3.6.1 Investment costs 66

2.3.6.2 Costs for operation and maintenance 67

2.3.6.3 Service life 67

2.3.6.4 Energy costs, price 67

2.3.7 Further aspects of HPPPs 67

2.3.7.1 Sedimentation 67

2.3.7.2 Effects of a HPPP on the ecology 68

2.3.7.3 Reflections on flood dimensioning 69

2.3.8 Examples of HPPPs and PPs at the toe of a dam 70

2.3.9 References for 2.3 71

2.4 Mechanical and electrical design of the TGP [D. Yuan, Z. Tian, S. Wang] 73

2.4.1 Introduction of the Three Gorges Project 73

2.4.2 Content and characteristics of the mechanical and electrical design 75

2.4.2.1 The design content of the mechanic and electric engineering 75

2.4.2.2 Characteristics and principles of the mechanical and electrical design 75

2.4.3 Hydro-turbine generator units with a rated power of 700 MW 77

2.4.3.1 Basic conditions for the selection of units 77

2.4.3.2 Measures for main technical problems 78

2.4.3.2.1 Study on stability of Francis turbines 78

2.4.3.2.2 Alternatives of temporary runners 78

2.4.3.2.3 Time limit for the installation of units 79

2.4.3.2.4 Study on anti-vibration of the powerhouse 80

2.4.3.2.5 Cooling method of the generator 80

2.4.3.2.6 Arrangement of the thrust bearing 80

2.4.3.3 The turbine 81

2.4.3.3.1 Basic characteristics of the power station 81

2.4.3.3.1.1 Water levels and discharges of the power station 81

2.4.3.3.1.2 Operating parameters of the power station 81

2.4.3.3.1.3 Probability occurrence of the various heads 82

2.4.3.3.1.4 Power station operation modes 82

2.4.3.3.1.5 Tail water levels 83

2.4.3.3.1.6 Special requirements for the TGP turbine operation 84

2.4.3.3.2 Basic characteristics and main parameters of the turbine 84

2.4.3.3.2.1 Type of the turbine 84

2.4.3.3.2.2 Specific rating 84

2.4.3.3.2.3 Optional speed 85

2.4.3.3.2.4 Cavitation coefficient and setting 85

2.4.3.3.2.5 Operational range 85

2.4.3.3.2.6 Turbine efficiency and energy production 86

2.4.3.3.2.7 Cavitation damage 88

2.4.3.3.2.8 Cracking guarantee of the runner 88

2.4.3.3.3 Model tests 88

2.4.3.3.3.1 Efficiency and output 89

2.4.3.3.3.2 Cavitation 90

2.4.3.3.3.3 Operating stability 90

2.4.3.3.3.4 Hydraulic thrust 92

2.4.3.3.4 Structure of main parts 93

2.4.3.3.4.1 General arrangement 93

2.4.3.3.4.4 Gate operating mechanism 95

2.4.3.3.4.5 Runner and connection between runner and main shaft 96

2.4.3.3.4.6 Bottom ring and head cover 96

2.4.3.3.4.7 Turbine shaft and shaft seal 97

2.4.3.3.4.8 Air admission system 97

2.4.3.4 Generator 97

2.4.3.4.1 Main parameters and performance of the generator 97

2.4.3.4.2 Structures, dimensions and weights of the generator main components 99

2.4.3.4.2.3 Bearings of the generator 102

2.4.3.4.2.4 Generator shafts 103

2.4.3.4.2.5 Upper and lower brackets 104

2.4.3.4.3 Stability of the generator 104

2.4.3.4.4 Rigidity and strength 105

2.4.3.4.5 Generator cooling method and cooling system 105

2.4.3.4.6 The generator neutral point grounding system 107

2.4.4 Electrical design 109

2.4.4.1 Integration of the power station into the power system 109

2.4.4.2 Electric main single line diagram 110

2.4.4.2.1 Combination between generator and transformer 111

2.4.4.2.2 Diagram of the 500 kV switchgear 112

2.4.4.3 Selection of the main electric equipment 112

2.4.4.4 Explanation of the main technical issues 114

2.4.4.4.1 Partial discharge level 114

2.4.4.4.2 Insulation level 114

2.4.4.4.3 Very fast transient over voltage (VFTO) 114

2.4.4.4.4 100% breaking DC component of circuit breaker 116

2.4.4.5 Arrangement of the electric equipment 116

2.4.5 Automation of the Three Gorges-Gezhouba cascade project 118

2.4.5.1 Functions of the system 118

2.4.5.1.1 Functions of the cascade dispatch level 118

2.4.5.1.2 Functions of the station subsystem level 118

2.4.5.1.3 Functions of the local level 120

2.4.5.2 System structure 120

2.4.5.3 Main technical characteristics of the system 120

2.4.5.4 Communication of the computer supervisory control system 121

2.4.6 Communication of the Three Gorges-Gezhouba cascade project 122

2.4.6.1 Functions of the communication system 122

2.4.6.2 Scheme of the communication system 122

2.4.6.3 Supervision and management system of communication network 123

2.4.7 Electric drive and control of the double-line continuous 5-level ship lock 124

2.4.7.1 Electric drive and control of miter gates and the culvert valves 124

2.4.7.2 Central auto supervisory control of integral operation for the permanent ship lock 127

2.4.8 Economical aspects of the Three Gorges Project 128

2.5 Tidal power plants (TPP) [Won-Oh Song, W. van Walsum] 129

Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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