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Policy Guidance Seeing it Like an Entrepreneur

Policy has had a powerful impact on solar diffusion in emerging markets, not just by helping pioneering entrepreneurs sell more solar systems, but by attracting a host of new players and more resources to the market. But it was not all one way. Policy was often inspired and influenced by the entrepreneurs themselves. As discussed in Chapter 2, there was a two-way relationship between the actions of the entrepreneurs and the policies that emerged to support them. In light of the power of policy, I use this chapter to prescriptively review and recommend which policies work and which do not in driving solar diffusion in emerging markets. The overarching message to all policymakers, whether international or national, is that to effectively ramp up solar diffusion, you need to be able to see the market like an entrepreneur. We postulated in Chapter 3, and saw in practice in Part II, that there is not a demand issue for solar in unelectrified areas of emerging markets. Living without the...

Entrepreneurs as Agents of Change

An entrepreneur must overcome two critical barriers to sell solar in large numbers in rural markets. As discussed in Chapter 3, these are the lack of finance for solar consumers and the lack of a viable market infrastructure for sales, installation and service. To put in place consumer finance and market infrastructure fundamentally takes capital - the 'life-blood' of the entrepreneurial start-up. As we shall see, the early solar entrepreneurs needed to raise two types of capital. The first was capital to help them build their market infrastructure the second was capital for consumer finance, which they did not need to own, but which they needed to mobilize to make their products more affordable. Once they had raised or mobilized this capital, they needed to have the capacity to put it to work in a profitable and sustainable manner. And here they had to learn, sometimes the hard way, what worked and what did not. In the end, their activities would stand as a demonstration for others...

Diffusion Theory and Entrepreneurship

But as we shall see, these theories are better at identifying the factors affecting diffusion than they are at explaining what enabled key actors - such as entrepreneurs - to influence them. Here instead we turn to management literature on entrepreneurship, which helps us better address the questions of 'Who influences diffusion ' and 'How did they do it '. My aim is to provide the reader with a more complete analytical framework, which can be applied to a range of innovations, and then apply it to the case of solar.

Figure What enables entrepreneurs to influence innovation diffusion

Before business schools were doing it, Penrose set out in 1959 to explain why some firms grew more quickly and more successfully than others. In doing so she concentrated on the capacities developed by the members of a firm over time and through experience. Not surprisingly, she left a lot of room for the agency of entrepreneurs when it came to translating opportunities into growth The set of opportunities for investment and growth that its entrepreneurs and managers perceive is different for every firm, and depends on its specific collection of human and other resources. Moreover, the environment is not something 'out there', fixed and immutable, but can itself be manipulated by the firm to serve its own purposes.82 In short, one entrepreneur may be able to find opportunity where others do not.83 Or put another way, 'different entrepreneurs in the same circumstances might well achieve different results'.84 To be fair, even Porter has recognized that 'outsiders', such as...

The Historical Role of Entrepreneurs in Innovation Diffusion

A firm built on an innovative technology serves as an incubator and carrier of that innovation, and the fate of the firm and of its innovation can often be linked.61 If the firm goes under, then the impetus behind the innovation's diffusion can die with it. But if the firm continues to grow, then we can expect other firms to enter the market, creating competitive pressures for enhanced marketing, cost and quality improvements, and further development of the infrastructure for widespread availability. For this reason, we need to look closely at the role of entrepreneurs in driving the growth of firms built on or around innovations. First we should take a moment to define the term 'entrepreneur'. In more traditional economic studies, 'firms are the key actors', while 'individuals are viewed as interchangeable and their actions determined by the firms they are in'.62 This view sees individuals as largely dispensable. However, there is another perspective in economics which links the...

Entrepreneurs in India

The American entrepreneur had already launched a successful project in Sri Lanka to demonstrate the viability of solar systems and the capacity and willingness of rural unelectrified customers to pay for them. But when it came to India, he said It was in January 1993 that the Indian entrepreneur arrived at the offices of the American entrepreneur's NGO. He had been trained as an engineer at one of India's elite universities, but had little business background. As part of his graduate studies in solar energy in the US, he had conducted field work in both the Dominican Republic and Sri Lanka, and had seen how to sell, install and service solar. About this experience he later recounted, 'It was very formative to go and see these models in action.' It gave him the confidence that these models could be replicated in India 'When you talk of high risk, it means you do not know the market. I perceived the risk as low, because I had seen the market working elsewhere.' The American entrepreneur...

Introduction to the Entrepreneurs

In most states in India, the Government programmes for solar were too strong, crowding out any direct commercial sales of solar. But in Karnataka, the Government solar programme was largely non-existent at this time - intentionally so, as it would turn out. This created a space for the American entrepreneur profiled earlier to enter in 1993 and forge a working relationship with an Indian entrepreneur that would soon transform into a commercial partnership. In 1995, the two entrepreneurs established a company that initially sold 40 solar systems on credit to rural customers in Karnataka. It was seeded with as little as US 30,000 in capital. It would have to operate on a shoestring for several years, until the entrepreneurs were able to mobilize sufficient resources to grow. During this time, invaluable lessons would be learned, and the company would serve as an example to policymakers and other businesses that it was indeed possible to set up commercial operations serving the rural...

Figure Grid failure in India

From the start in South India by drawing on the local entrepreneurial spirit and talent and simply forming a company'. This would prove easier to say than to do, however, because India at this time only allowed 51 per cent foreign ownership - it had to be a joint venture. It would take more than six months before the entrepreneurs could launch their new business, in March 1995. Later, when the rules allowed for 100 per cent ownership, the company's structure was changed again. Mired in red tape, it was not until 1998 that the company emerged as what the American entrepreneur said was the first 100 per cent foreign-owned solar company in India. In late 1994 the American entrepreneur was using his networks to arrange the initial seed capital. The Indian entrepreneur, having finished his postgraduate studies, was on the ground, preparing for the initial project. In the end the American entrepreneur scraped together US 30,000 as seed funding, about which he recalled at the time It was...

Do Not Apply Import Duties and Sales Taxes

Import duties and sales taxes have the same effect - they raise the cost of solar compared to the alternatives. Although in theory an entrepreneur can always pass on these taxes to the customer, in practice entrepreneurs, such as the Indian entrepreneur, may not feel they are able to do so, and their margins will become unduly squeezed. In Indonesia, the entrepreneur was able to work with very low import duties. Indonesian officials were clear that while they desired in-country manufacturing of solar, they were not prepared to tax the solar module with an import duty Partly as a result of his component selection, and partly as a result of facing lower duties, the Indonesian entrepreneur's margins were 30 per cent, and his system price was 15-20 per cent lower than that of the entrepreneurs in India, for example. In Sri Lanka as well, with BOI permission, the Sri Lankan entrepreneur was able to import solar systems on a duty-free basis for a prescribed period of time. Here the...

Notfor Profit Pioneers Go Commercial

As we briefly reviewed in the case of Kenya, one of the more interesting, and ultimately effective, actors in solar diffusion would prove to be individual entrepreneurs initially motivated more by the 'promise' of solar energy - to deliver renewable energy solutions to the world's poor - than just the money to be made from selling solar. Although these individuals were not entrepreneurs in the sense of making money, they nonetheless fit Schumpeter's definition, discussed in Chapter 2, in the sense that they set out to effect profound technological change. The following paragraphs take some time to profile two of these individuals in particular, as they would provide inspiration to future entrepreneurs and policymakers and lay the seeds for diffusion in several markets we will go on to consider in detail. An entrepreneur from the US started his work in solar as the director of a high-profile solar NGO. He first got the idea that there might be a big market for solar in the emerging...

Alternative Power Renewable Energy Center

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Facilitate Lines of Credit for Consumer Finance

Very often banks or other finance institutions might be reluctant to enter the solar market. Certainly for many years this remained the case. For example, in Sri Lanka throughout the 1990s, the Sri Lankan entrepreneur was unable to encourage them to enter the market. The same applied to Indonesia, where the entrepreneur was also unable to convince the banks to enter. How then to encourage the rural banking sector to enter and start to lend for solar In Bangladesh we saw how under the World Bank programme, IDCOL gives a grant for 'institutional development' only to those entities who are willing to finance solar. If the system is a 'cash' sale, then there is no grant for institutional development. It is not necessarily recommended to limit a grant in this way, but the point stands that offering a grant per customer financed is an attractive incentive that worked well in encouraging consumer finance in Bangladesh. This approach was also used by the entrepreneur in Sri Lanka, where he...

The Missing Element of Agency

Answering these questions is the first step in explaining the diffusion of an innovation. The next step is to then link them to the role of the entrepreneur, and explain how such individuals and their organizations are able to influence each of the above four factors. To put it more clearly, who will make the innovation more attractive, competitive, affordable and available to the masses, and how will they do it This is the element of agency, and, as we saw in our review, it is not fully developed in the existing theories of diffusion. If we were to integrate the impact of entrepreneurs with the four factors above, as identified by diffusion research, a schematic diagram might look as simple as Figure 2.2. But why do we single out entrepreneurs as the key agents of technology diffusion And what makes them more or less effective in this role To address these outstanding questions, we will now turn to management literature, which not only substantiates the focus on entrepreneurs, but...

Can Carbon Trading Accelerate Solar Diffusion

In theory, carbon trading provides a potential boon for solar in emerging markets. In line with the interests of this book, it can for instance be used by entrepreneurs to help them build out the market infrastructure to reach more customers. In practice, however, there are seven significant hurdles that any entrepreneur will need to overcome to access these new resources. We will review these obstacles in detail. But before doing so, it is useful to understand how the carbon trading market came into existence, and how it works in practice. That is the theory. But in practice, as mentioned earlier, an entrepreneur has to overcome seven key hurdles to be able to put CERs to work for a solar business in the emerging markets.36 Third, under its original rules and guidelines, the CDM was not well set up to handle ongoing sales of a decentralized technology. Under old rules, an entrepreneur would need to incur all the transaction costs, each and every year, to establish what are called CER...

Figure Solar diffusion under World Bank projects ESD and RERED in Sri Lanka

The first signs of this role emerged in 2001, when, as discussed earlier, the Sri Lankan entrepreneur was successful in convincing the Uva Provincial Council to introduce an extra US 100 grant per unit installed. Eventually the AU and the entrepreneur would be successful in convincing the Government of Sri Lanka to roll out the grant to other equally poor provinces in the north and east, and ultimately countrywide. Moreover, the AU would end up taking on the role of disbursing this additional grant on behalf of the Sri Lankan Government.

The World Bank on a Learning Curve

We have already seen in the preceding chapters that entrepreneurs were active in lobbying for the entry of the World Bank to support their sales. The view was that if the World Bank entered, they could introduce policies that would lead to a surge in solar sales. But when the World Bank took the bait, and started to develop solar projects, it had no ready template it could implement. Most of its experience was in centralized power plants and large-scale transmission and distribution projects. When it came to supporting decentralized sales and installation of a smaller-scale technology like solar in rural areas, it was initially rather at a loss. But like the entrepreneurs, the Bank learned how to support solar diffusion. In fact a lot of what it learned came from the entrepreneurs themselves. When the World Bank started off in India, it had little success spurring solar diffusion in rural areas. But those involved learned the lessons from this project and then applied them to...

Do Not Create Parallel Government Driven Markets

If we consider the case of Gujurat, in northwest India, for example, the World Bank would seem to have had a point (Table 7.1). On the supply side, even if entrepreneurs were interested in serving the Gujurat market, they would not invest to sell solar at commercial prices of US 445 if the government agency could undercut them by selling at US 7.75. On the demand side, imagine that there was only enough money in the annual budget for 1000 households in Gujurat to receive a solar system priced at US 7.75 it is clear that the 1001st customer in Gujurat will not buy a system for 445 if all of their neighbours have been able to buy at 7.75. Instead that person, and the rest of the pending market, will simply wait until the next year's budget and buy then. This is not the way to arrive at a self-sustaining, accelerating mode of technology diffusion. Returning to the entrepreneurs in India, the main reason they could gain a foothold in the market was because Karnataka was not running a...

Make Foreign Direct Investment and Direct Selling Easy

As we saw in Part II, many of the early entrepreneurs either came from abroad or were accessing capital from abroad. If we look at the impact that foreign capital had on diffusion in India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka, it is clear that a government should not be afraid of foreign investment, but should rather embrace it. We also saw in Chapter 5 how delays in arranging for foreign ownership of the Indian firm delayed the inward remittance of essential capital and diffusion. By contrast, in Sri Lanka, the Board of Investments (BOI) gave swift approval for the acquisition of the local solar company. The only criterion was that a certain amount of money needed to be invested as equity into the company over a certain amount of time. Because the transaction happened smoothly and quickly, the entrepreneur in Sri Lanka could start to build the market infrastructure weeks after the deal was signed. This, in turn, would assist in closing the deal with SEEDS and setting in motion a rapid increase...

Replicating Bangladesh

With both China and Sri Lanka showing signs of success, the bank rolled out a 100,000 solar system project in Bangladesh in 2002. Here again, it applied the same template of putting in place a line of credit for customers, as well as a grant per system installed and an independent administering office - IDCOL. However, in Bangladesh there was a chance for the Bank to actually put the model it had envisaged in Indonesia to work. The two largest NGOs in the country - Grameen Bank and BRAC - had adopted the same model as the Indonesian entrepreneur selling and financing solar under one roof.

Whose costs Why solar and fossil resources cannot be compared on the basis of economic efficiency calculations

All that is needed for this to happen is to make the cognitive leap to see that the operator of a PV installation can step out of their consumer role to become an independent energy entrepreneur. As such, they can calculate their costs exactly as would a business when buying new equipment or machinery, and deploy their investment as flexibly and therefore as profitably as possible. A computer, for example, can be a tool for writing or revising documents, performing calculations, drawing, copying, translating, transmitting and receiving information and information storage. If a profit-seeking company were to use this computer solely for writing documents which had no need of subsequent revision, the costs in comparison to the classical typewriter would be so high as to make the computer unprofitable. Profitability increases rapidly, however, paying back the purchase cost many times over, as soon several or all of its functions are put to use. The economic value of an investment grows...

Overview of Subsequent Chapters

The history of technology diffusion demonstrates the 'power' of entrepreneurs to profoundly influence the diffusion process. But to adequately account for the impact of entrepreneurs, we need to turn to management literature on entrepreneurship and integrate it with existing diffusion research. From this melding of different perspectives we distil an analytical framework that can more adequately address the question at hand. governments, and we show why most of these entities were not able to initiate a sustainable and effective process of solar diffusion. Largely in response to these failed initiatives, we consider how, by the mid 1990s, a consensus had formed that solar must 'go commercial'. We then profile the early not-forprofit pioneers who, as if on cue, struck out to set up solar businesses, as well as existing non-governmental organizations (NGOs) which stepped into solar to run it like a business. We also introduce early entrepreneurs from three emerging markets - India,...

Contrasting Experience in the IFC

But not all parts of the World Bank were able to demonstrate the same degree of learning in support of solar. The private wing of the World Bank -the IFC - should have been the ideal body to drive solar diffusion. In theory, because it could lend directly to entrepreneurs and businesses, it was better suited to move more quickly than the country desks in the World Bank. After all, country-level programmes took two to three years to develop, and then once it was on the ground they generally took two to three years to have a meaningful impact on solar diffusion. Moreover, because the IFC was the private wing of the bank, it should have been even better able to understand and address the barriers that entrepreneurs were facing in the market. But interestingly, the IFC proved not to be as successful as the core operations of the World Bank. such as the Photovoltaic Market Transformation Initiative (PVMTI) and the Solar Development Group (SDG). Others incorporated solar among other...

Wider Relevance of the Diffusion Framework

We can think of a range of actors that would like these questions answered politicians and government officials in emerging markets who are intent on reducing the amount spent on imported fossil fuels international agencies and officials who are helping emerging markets introduce renewables into their energy mix entrepreneurs and larger firms that are engaged in selling renewable energy and other related innovations and want to sell more investors who would like to know which technologies and which entrepreneurs and companies to back environmental activists who would like to see a reduction in local pollution with immediate health impacts, as well as the emergence of a more sustainable development pattern and students who have taken up the challenge of explaining the diffusion of an innovation and hope to make a contribution to the policy dialogue. But, very often, those with a stake in the accelerated diffusion of renewables in emerging markets do not have the right tools. Where...

Solar Goes Commercial

When solar was introduced into emerging markets in the 1980s, it seemed everyone wanted to get into the business - in addition to the earliest entrepreneurs, there were aid agencies, utilities, government departments, NGOs and socially conscious individuals. Though a bit chaotic, this was not totally unexpected. Solar, after all, was seen as having a big potential for poverty alleviation. This attracted many different types of individuals and organizations into directly distributing the innovation. Moreover, nobody really knew for sure at this stage who would be better or worse at doing it. What we see is that, in general, the public sector actors such as utilities, aid agencies and government departments were not well suited to the task. The more this developed into a pattern, the more that commentators started to call for solar in emerging markets to be commercialized just like any other technological innovation. And in line with this call, some early not-for-profit pioneers decided...

New York To Pennsylvania

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Theory Applied to Solar

The excitement surrounding solar's introduction into emerging markets in the late 1980s and early 1990s meant that much was written on it. These 'reports from the field' are a rich source of information, and when viewed through the lens of our analytical framework on diffusion, they help us arrive at the key factors that were holding solar back. Furthermore, by isolating these barriers, we set the stage for later discussions on what enabled entrepreneurs to overcome them and thereby accelerate the diffusion process.

Big Push from the World Bank

The first pillar of the MSHI was a grant per unit installed to attract entrepreneurs into the rural markets to build the market infrastructure for solar. The grant per unit installed would be set at US 150 per unit for a 50-watt system - slightly higher than the existing World Bank programmes in order to drive diffusion more quickly. This would mean 150 million in grant funding across 1 million systems over a five-year period. In a very promising gesture, the then head of the GEF agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002 that his institution was committed to injecting US 60 million of the required grant funding provided other donors came on board. The specific services GVEP intends to offer are development of energy action plans in national or local poverty reduction strategies, capacity development among entrepreneurs, policymakers and consumer organizations, funding facilitation with local, bilateral and multilateral financiers, knowledge...

Will Market Forces Deliver

So what has all this growth meant for the emerging markets First of all, it's worth noting that it has meant a big opportunity for some entrepreneurs in some emerging markets who manufacture solar mainly for export to the industrialized markets. For example, China has seen a phenomenal growth in its

Million Solar Homes Fund

A hundred million solar homes by 2025 is by no means a fantasy 25 per cent penetration of the total base of unelectrified households is possible in roughly 15 years with the right combination of well-managed grants, lines of credit and limited policy reforms. This will not only improve the lives of new solar users, but it will encourage thousands of entrepreneurs and create millions of jobs in rural areas of emerging markets, where skilled employment opportunities are scarce. Moreover, it will build on a solid track record of success in terms of what it takes to rapidly accelerate solar diffusion. It is an initiative waiting for political champions to seize, and in so doing, bring light to close to half a billion people throughout the emerging markets.

Chapter Institutional Considerations for Renewable Energy Development

Renewable energy projects are most successful when favorable national, state, and local policies are in place. Recognition of the social, environmental, and health benefits of renewable water pumping systems in rural areas can lead to sound policies on importation requirements, taxes, fossil fuel subsidies, and other government barriers that can artificially increase the cost of installed renewable energy systems. Government programs that are already working in related areas such as farming, ranching, and potable water can justify the direct involvement of government agencies in the implementation of renewable energy programs. Such programs are valuable vehicles in promoting renewable technologies and educating potential end users. Favorable policies encourage entrepreneurs and widespread market growth.

Innovative policies and replication potential

This case study exemplifies a city with significant renewable energy resources available but no formal policies to encourage the greater deployment and use of renewable energy within the community. The Council has developed renewable energy projects to support its own business operations, benefit the environment, and enhance the city's finances. It has partnered with a utility to gain investment opportunities, and benefitted from the trading of carbon credits earned from the landfill gas site. Other New Zealand cities such as Christchurch and Waitakere have also employed innovative ideas from their staff and communities to achieve similar renewable energy goals. Many cities in other countries could do the same.

Performance and Cost

Table 2 shows figures for a compact neighborhood grouping of residential systems, where a utility or private developer owns, finances, and provides maintenance. Table 2 illustrates the influence that economies of scale have on syste m costs. Cost Of Energy figures should be prepared from Table 2, because while the homeowners realize an energ y savings, they do not sell power to themselves or take depreciation or tax credits unless they are self-employed.

The Future Direction of Indian Renewable Energy Policies

Although the MNES has been supporting R& D for technology and human resources development in the renewable energy sector, the emphasis now is on cost reductions and increases in efficiency. It is intended that there be increased interaction and close cooperation between the the country's research and teaching institutions, which are reservoirs of knowledge and experience, and Indian industry, which has the requisite entrepreneurial skills and market orientation.

The Grid of the Future

We need to adopt a bottom-up approach. We need to establish rules that will channel entrepreneurial energy, investment capital, and scientific genius toward building a two-way electricity system, one in which millions of households and businesses become producers as well as consumers. We need to develop the rules that will enable and encourage a distributed, decentralized, democratic electricity system.

The fear of the small scale

Solar power is currently still laborious because there has been a lack of suppliers, sources of information and advice, because there are still numerous bureaucratic obstacles, and because the entrepreneurial, technical and personnel infrastructure remains inadequate. Further complications arise because most individual systems are still only partial solutions, which exist alongside nuclear and fossil fuel energy rather than fully replacing them. Most solar collectors installed on houses only supply part of the heating need, and most PV installations only satisfy part of the need for electricity. The operators of such systems thus have to work with both conventional and alternative systems simultaneously, incurring costs for two separate supply systems. Even the personal computer would not have been introduced so quickly and on such a large scale if it had not been able to fully replace and improve on the typewriter.

Industry water pumping and drinking water

The emerging uses of renewable energy are for agriculture, small industry, water pumping and cottage applications (sawmills and mechanical power). Furthermore, social services, such as education and health care can be supported by renewable energy. Water pumps driven by wind have historically played a role in rural areas. More recently, interest is growing in solar PV-powered water pumps, along with biogas for water pumping in engines run on diesel and biogas. Standalone energy systems can power small industries, thereby creating local jobs and opportunities. In fact, the development of mini-grids and industry goes hand in hand. As small businesses grow, the economic viability of mini-grids increases. With the availability of energy, new possibilities open up. Renewable energy can also power mechanical pumping and filtering (as well as ultraviolet disinfection) to provide clean drinking water. This is emerging as a potential major market in developing countries.

Current policies relating to renewable energy project deployment

Consequently, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government mandated a cap-and-trade scheme in June 2008 that will be the first urban scheme to give an emissions limit to office buildings. Any organisation that consumes over 60 TJ of heat, electricity and transport fuels per year is to be included, such as large commercial buildings, 1 100 businesses and 300 factories also covered. Large businesses are encouraged to engage in emission trading with small businesses. The first five-year compliance period will be 2010 to 2014, with the second 2015 to 2019. Base-year emissions are to be calculated from the average of the past three years with the cap for the first compliance period set at 6 below this average. Calculation of the allowance allocation has a variable compliance factor incorporated for the five-year period. In order to meet the target of 25 reduction of emissions below 2000 levels by 2030, the cap for the second period will need to be around 17 ....

Understanding Stakeholder Resources

Individual people and small businesses, especially those local to projects, will have limited specialist skills or knowledge to undertake risk assessment in the likely areas of interest. At a local level, community stakeholders may have only limited financial resources coming mainly from their own pockets and limited expertise in specialists areas. Despite this, they are likely to have large numbers of people to call upon to assist in an unskilled capacity.

Microgrids building integration and electric vehicles

Micro-grids are usually developed and installed by local entrepreneurs. Where feasible, they are operated in co-operation with a centralised bulk electricity supplier to resolve rising peak power demands where economic storage is unavailable. When carefully designed, micro-grid technologies can produce a power supply system that is reliable and can provide economic and political incentives for all stakeholders.

If There is No Rural Finance Do Not Do Feefor Service

From a policymaker's point of view, fee-for-service can sound ideal. A customer can access a solar system for a fraction of the price they would otherwise pay. Instead of paying on a cash basis, or taking out a loan, a customer simply pays a monthly fee. This fee is intended to cover the cost of the solar system, as well as regular servicing and the replacement of essential components such as batteries and electronics. It seems an ideal customer offer, with the potential for high rates of diffusion. But in line with the theme of this book, the more worrying question is whether it can ever be successfully executed by entrepreneurs as a business model. This gets back to our emphasis on agency in Chapter 2. It is not enough for solar to be made affordable and for service to be made available (fee-forservice will certainly do that) an entrepreneur must also be able to bring the capacities and resources together and deploy them in a profitable manner. If a strategy is so taxing that...

Developing financial solutions for offgrid RE businesses in developing countries

Financing Continuum

To initiate a new business activity, an off-grid RE entrepreneur needs various sources of capital and business-development support.15 The capital needs can also be shown along a finance continuum (see Figure 8.3) starting upstream with the start-up investment the entrepreneur injects to plan and initiate the business To start a new off-grid RE business, or expand an existing business into RE, the entrepreneur needs a significant amount of time and capital resources. Innovators are needed that have the capital, the capacity and the entrepreneurship to take risks in developing and testing new business approaches and service offerings. For the entrepreneur it is not so much about understanding a new technology, but rather understanding a market need and being able to package an appropriate technology with a service offering to address this need. In developing countries the offering of RE products and services generally develops in two distinct phases 2 The second stage of off-grid RE...

Q Millions of people relying on biomass Figure Millions without electricity and relying on biomass for cooking

The world outside the electricity grid is far from one of passive energy deprivation. There is rather a complex and dynamic evolution of energy demands with time, economic development, fashion and rising aspirations. These demands are met by local entrepreneurs and traders, responding often with considerable ingenuity and initiative to the changes taking place in the energy market.8

The Hydrogen Scenarios Considered

Hydrogen Production Station German

Germany, the world fifth largest consumer of energy, depends heavily on energy import to meet energy demand. Nearly all petroleum and about 80 of natural gas used are imported 176 . About one fourth of final energy consumption of the country (1990-1999) is demanded by industry. The traffic sector has nearly 30 followed by households with 28.5 . Small businesses hold a share of 16 of the final energy consumption. The military is below one percent. It is also shown that the energy consumption of business dropped and industry and rose for households and traffic sectors (Figure 2.16).

Innovative Wind Systems

Rotating Cylinder Electrode Photos

The West German government funded the construction of a 200 m tall tower in Spain 5 . A 240 m diameter greenhouse at the bottom provided the hot air to drive the air turbine, rated at 75 kW, which was located inside the tower. A private entrepreneur in California constructed a Magnus type wind turbine 6 , 17 m in diameter, with purported rated capacity of 110 kW (Figure 5.18). The unit was later moved to the wind test site of Southern California Edison, which was located in San Gorgonio Pass. A small wind turbine has been built with spirals on the cylinders (Figure 5.19). A built-in motor spins the cylinders, which in the wind makes the rotor rotate due to the Magnus force on the cylinders. The unit is 11.5 m diameter and rated power is 12 kW.

The Market Infrastructure Perspective

Of all the four perspectives, the market infrastructure perspective comes the closest in integrating the impact of entrepreneurs on the diffusion process. The perspective itself is most closely associated with the discipline of geography, and its essence is summed up best by Brown when he writes Unless some government, entrepreneurial or non-profit organization makes the innovation available at or near the location of the potential adopter that person or household will not have the option to adopt in the first place.46 Brown then looks behind the local diffusion agency to the propagators, defined as 'profit or non-profit motivated organizations or government agencies acting to induce the rapid and complete diffusion of the innovation'.53 Diffusion is explained by the propagators' establishment of diffusion agencies and the strategies adopted to promote diffusion, including pricing, promotional communications, market segmentation and channel development. Of the relevant propagators, it...

The Economic History Perspective

The other good thing about this perspective is that it clearly recognizes the impact of entrepreneurs and their firms on the rate of diffusion. In addition to Edison, Watt and Diesel, mentioned above, you can think of Ford and the automobile, Remington and the typewriter, Wozniak and Jobs and the personal computer, and so on. But unfortunately, although the economic history perspective addresses the role of the entrepreneur, it tends to concentrate primarily on the entrepreneur's 'problem-solving' abilities,32 meaning technical problem-solving. By mainly limiting the analysis to entrepreneurs' successes in overcoming technical problems and producing a better product at better prices, the economic history perspective tends to ignore all the problem-solving that surrounds the profitable selling of an innovation in large numbers - problems related to raising capital, distribution, promotions, pricing, taxes, supply chain management and even government policies. For instance, as one...

The REEF and the SME fund

The three transactions that made up this amount were with the American entrepreneur's firm in Vietnam, Grameen Shakti in Bangladesh and the fee-for-service business in Central America (as profiled in Chapter 4). But of these businesses, only Grameen Shakti would have a sustainable impact, and here, as we have seen, it was a small loan. It was not sizeable enough to have the same impact as the line of credit and grant the World Bank later put into the country.

If There Is No Rural Finance Target Smaller System Sales Instead

As we have seen, Kenya received a good deal of donor support to kick-start solar diffusion. Although a lot of the donor programmes left systems without adequate after-sales maintenance, meaning they consequently failed, they also served to train many local technicians and would-be entrepreneurs in the technology. When the donor funding dried up, these individuals went on to work for and establish their own companies to sell and install solar on a commercial

Market Infrastructure Perspective Is it Available

In the Dominican Republic, trained technicians were said to 'constitute the front line in PV promotion in terms of influencing public perceptions of the product because they are the ones who work most closely with the clients'.58 Here each technician was treated as a small-business owner responsible for sales, installation and maintenance of systems. And giving some hint as to their importance, it was found that solar diffusion largely kept up with the number of such technicians, which grew from zero in 1992 to more than 20 in 1995 actively installing systems in each of the country's 18 departments. The number of systems installed during each year has grown exponentially with the number of small businesses, jumping from 60 installed during 1993 to 300 during 1994 and to 550 during the first half of 1995, and by the end of 1995 it was estimated that over 1000 systems had been sold.59

Accelerating a Renewable Energy Future

Lesson 1 Entrepreneurs are central to diffusion, so support them Entrepreneurial ventures are never easy. But entrepreneurs in the renewable energy sector of emerging markets are operating in a particularly challenging environment. Policy needs to start from this premise. Some parts of emerging markets lack the essentials that many entrepreneurs in industrialized countries take for granted easy access to reliable market data, customers with bank accounts, direct debit and credit cards, relatively low rates of interest, easier means of communication and reaching customers, and so on. This tends to mean more challenges for entrepreneurs in emerging markets (not to ignore the opportunities), and higher perceptions of risk by investors. In addition, there is the challenge of working specifically in the energy sector. This sector tends to be highly regulated and state controlled. It has changed over the years, with the onset of privatization and de-bundling of utilities. But in many...

Public Sector Diffusion

However, in line with the discussion in Chapter 2 about existing industries not wanting to destabilize their own business and not being able to see new opportunities, it soon became clear during the 1990s that utilities found this new emerging solar market quite unappealing. When it came to rural electrification, their knowledge base primarily pertained to grid extension, around which they had established standard, comfortable practices.3 Moreover, at the time, most electric utilities in emerging markets were struggling to make ends meet as it was, without introducing a new business into their mix. They simply did not have the appetite for something as new as selling decentralized solar systems

Deploy a Grant per Unit Installed on a Consistent Basis

The same logic applies to the sale of solar in rural areas of emerging markets selling solar in remote places, where customers are often dispersed and have limited purchasing power, is not intuitively an ideal place for an entrepreneur to earn a return. As we have seen, to sell solar in this environment, entrepreneurs will need to invest in training staff, establishing networks of salespeople and technicians, vehicles, mobile phones, and so on. The only reason significant capital will flow to this sector is if entrepreneurs can show that it is possible to earn a return on investment by doing so. Subsidies need to be designed to fundamentally convince entrepreneurs that there is an attractive opportunity in investing in, developing and remaining in this market. A grant per unit installed, channelled directly to entrepreneurs, provides an excellent incentive. By improving the margins that a firm can earn on each solar system, this grant not only makes it more attractive for...

Summing Up

We have seen that diffusion research can help us identify key barriers in the diffusion process. Specifically, it asks us to consider four core questions relating to the diffusion of an innovation Is it attractive Is it competitive Is it affordable Is it available Answering these questions will go a long way towards establishing the barriers to the diffusion of an innovation. However, we have also seen that doing so will not give us a full explanation. For this we need to add an element of agency, particularly the impact of entrepreneurs. Historically, the entrepreneur has been a key agent in the diffusion of innovations. In terms of what empowers an entrepreneur to fulfil this role, it is clear that it is a mix of essential capacities and resources to affect change. Beyond the sheer will of the entrepreneur, we need to look closely at an entrepreneur's prior experience and learning-on-the-job, and we need to look closely at an entrepreneur's connection with investors in raising...

What Role for Policy

Entrepreneurs do not operate in a vacuum. Policies that are put in place by government can strongly influence their businesses. Of the different perspectives on innovation diffusion, the economic history perspective gives the most detailed attention to the relationship between technology diffusion and policy changes, which are subsumed under the broader heading of 'institutional changes'.109 In particular, this perspective looks at how policies change to improve the relative economic attractiveness of a particular innovation. Because it will apply to later discussions on solar, it is also worth noting the finding of economic historians that there is a symbiotic relationship between institutional change and technological innovation and diffusion.114 In other words it is not all one way that policy changes facilitate or hamper diffusion. Instead, entrepreneurs' efforts to bring an innovation to market can themselves influence policy. In the case of Dutch shipping, for instance, Brown...

Resources

By credit, Schumpeter did not mean customer credit, but capital, which has been found to be particularly relevant in the high-tech sector, where product development, manufacturing, sales and marketing, channel development, and so on are expensive and can be prohibitive for the small company.97 Thus studies of high-tech entrepreneurship have concluded that while 'entrepreneurial people provide the initiative, the energy and the vision to launch a new company money provides the grease, the wherewithal to make it happen'.98 Similarly, others conclude that Every dynamic process needs to be fuelled. The fuel for the entrepreneurial process is capital. Capital is the catalyst for the entrepreneurial chain reaction. It is the lifeblood of the emerging and expanding enterprises. Capital provides the financial resources through which the ideas of the entrepreneur can be developed, tested and commercialized.99 But if capital is key, then it is certainly the case that entrepreneurs often lack...

Summary

The central message of this chapter has been that for policymakers to accelerate solar diffusion they need to be able to see the market like an entrepreneur. When they do this, the policy decisions that follow will be almost intuitive. From our earlier review in Part II, and from a review of contrasting case studies in this chapter, we were able to distil eight specific recommendations for policymakers. The most basic of these is that policymakers should avoid setting up parallel, government-driven markets for solar, as these discourage entrepreneurs from investing in a market infrastructure and selling directly to customers. Having made space for the entrepreneur, it is then imperative to also encourage the flow of capital from all quarters, domestic or international, and so policymakers should allow for 100 per cent foreign direct investment, and direct selling by foreign firms. Although many policymakers may find it counter-intuitive, and not something they have done before, it is...

The PVMTI

The PVMTI selected three high-potential countries - India (US 15 million), Morocco (US 5 million) and Kenya (US 5 million). The remaining US 5 million presumably went to administration of the PVMTI facility over a 10-year period. In a way it was promising the PVMTI intended the funds to be used not for manufacturing or large solar installations, but for extending sales, distribution and service networks, expanding the assembly of systems, and developing consumer finance packages. But the IFC's terms were too tough. The IFC wanted leverage of private capital against PVMTI funds to be 3 to 1 in India, 2 to 1 in Morocco and 1 to 1 in Kenya. That meant that an entrepreneur in India would have to put up 3 for every 1 that the PVMTI would offer. If we think about how little equity the early solar entrepreneurs had to offer, this simply was not realistic. So not surprisingly, the PVMTI funds went to the bigger companies, which could put up more of their own equity capital. For example, in...

Solar Findings

As a result, observers of the market began to call for solar to 'go commercial'. Commercial sales of solar offered an opportunity for this promising technology to get away from one-off donor projects or under-funded government programmes, and establish a self-sustaining mechanism for diffusion. And, as if on queue, those already engaged in the business as not-for-profit entities set up commercial solar outfits, NGOs entered the market and started to sell solar like a business, and early entrepreneurs started trying to scale up their activities. Selling Solar has profiled three different sets of entrepreneurs in India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. All of them were attempting to pioneer a solar revolution in their local markets. Some were more driven by profit than others. But The market was wide open for these entrepreneurs to seize, and they knew it. But all the profiled entrepreneurs struggled to raise sufficient resources to realize their visions. They were starved for capital in the...

Figure

What started as just a trickle of solar sales in the mid 1990s by two entrepreneurs grew into thousands of systems per year being sold by a multitude of players and financed by an even larger number of banks. As of the end of 2007, the best estimates were that over 100,000 solar systems had been installed in Karnataka through private-sector channels since the entrepreneurs launched their commercial enterprise in 1995.20 In line with our discussions in Chapter 2, the key to the increase in the diffusion of solar proved to be entrepreneurial tenacity, combined with raising sufficient resources and developing the capacities to deploy them in a profitable manner. Then, through their demonstration effect, the entrepreneurs attracted the attention of big business and policymakers, who helped to further drive the diffusion process. As we have seen, a bigger company like Shell Solar could bring considerable resources to the task of diffusing solar, with some significant results. It was...

Big Business

Thus, in line with our discussions in Chapter 2 and the theories surrounding technological innovation, it is interesting to note that the entrepreneurs under consideration were all from outside the solar PV manufacturing industry. They were the consummate industry outsiders - individual entrepreneurs with a vision for a big business in areas of the world largely deemed 'too difficult' by the PV manufacturers that would, in theory, have had the most interest in the market.47 It was not until the end of the century, once entrepreneurs had started to demonstrate the commercial potential in the rural solar markets, that some bigger businesses also decided to enter. For instance, lectricit de France and Total entered rural solar projects in Morocco in the late 1990s. And Shell set up a division specifically targeting the rural unelectrified segment through this division it 'directly' entered the markets in India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, South Africa, Morocco and Indonesia. As it was...

The SDG

The SDG was spearheaded by several US foundations and was picked up on and supported by the then president of the World Bank, James Wolfensohn.72 From the very beginning, the SDG was set up to provide support to entrepreneurs who were engaged in either selling or financing solar. about 40 projects in 19 different emerging markets.74 Although there was much hope that the SDC would find many entrepreneurs to invest in on commercial terms, the SDC would ultimately find many reasons why its original mandate to support solar entrepreneurs would not work out. It listed down its reasons in 2003 margins can be thin in rural markets relative to the effort to reach customers operating costs are high, because the market is where the grid does not go each sale is difficult, because it is a very large investment of a rural household's annual income it is not easy for entrepreneurs in emerging markets to prepare their business plans and accounts in a way that meets the expectations of an...

IPPP Update

In either case, independent power providers must expand our efforts to develop a competitive off-grid market in which independent entrepreneurs, not monopolistic utilities, are the power providers. First, we can do this by mobilizing to prevent other utilities from entering the off-grid market. Most importantly, however, we must get the message out to potential customers that PV power is a viable solution to their power needs, that it is already available, and that it works.

Transparency

In order to kick-start renewable energy markets, support schemes and policy frameworks must be visible and accessible. In any new market most potential entrants will be outside the market at the outset. Entrants may come from energy companies, the civil engineering sector, heavy industry, the finance sector or they may be entrepreneurs looking at niche opportunities. They may also be looking at the market from overseas. What they all have in common is that they are coming from somewhere else.

NGOs Go Commercial

Of course, in addition to commercially minded NGOs and the not-forprofit pioneers who became commercial entrepreneurs, there were those who approached solar as a business from the moment they got involved. The following section introduces three different sets of entrepreneurs who will be profiled in more detail in subsequent chapters.

Conclusions

Government industry forum should be established, consisting of representatives from all parts of the biomass for energy supply chain, including farmers, transporters, generators, construction companies, local councils and central government policy makers. The forum would allow its members to identify problems, share solutions and experiences and make recommendations on improving the effectiveness of biomass energy policy. Currently the process of establishing schemes is fragmented and relies to a great extent on local knowledge and enthusiasm and the drive of a few local entrepreneurs. Setting up a discussion forum would allow knowledge and experience to be shared to the benefit of all, and produce policy recommendations to enable biomass energy to be promoted more effectively.

Acknowledgements

My PhD supervisors at the Judge Business School, Cambridge University, subsequently helped give proper shape to my ideas. Dr Chris Hope's legitimate demands for quantitative analysis helped me demonstrate the competitiveness of solar technology in rural markets, and better explain the financials behind selling solar. On the theoretical side, Dr Elizabeth Garnsey's work on entre-preneurship provided me with the key missing links to explain how entrepreneurs affect the diffusion of innovations. Both Chris and Elizabeth were ideal PhD supervisors - I couldn't have asked for better. In the last 15 years, I have met a few tremendous entrepreneurs setting out to revolutionize rural solar markets. I owe a debt of gratitude to these individuals for sharing with me the frustrations and challenges of selling solar as a start-up entity. They showed me first-hand the way in which an individual's vision, perseverance and unique capacities can be brought to bear to instigate profound technological...

Johnny Weiss

This Workshop Seminar is for those interested in solar electricity for their own applications or those pursuing a career in PVs. Previous trainees have included licensed electricians, solar technicians, energy efficiency professionals, PV industry trainers, researchers, entrepreneurs, and end users. Everyone from professionals to do-it-yourselfers can learn and benefit from this training. Graduates are employed in PV installation, design, sales, manufacturing, management and training. To date over 400 people have completed this program.

Effective markets

4.20 Further steps will be needed if the full potential of biomass for district heating and CHP is to be realised. We recommend that financial support be awarded to councils to enable them to investigate the potential for biomass energy in their area. Taking the European Union's leadvi, underwriting loans for biomass schemes where councils are unable to provide the necessary investment could enable the first steps towards council-led development of this sector to be taken. This would reduce the pressure on councils to avoid biomass as a marginal risk project and would also reduce the reliance on local entrepreneurs to drive projects forward and to invest time and resources in sourcing funding from disparate sources. Government underwriting of loans (or even provision of loans) would reduce lender uncertainty and increase the opportunities for councils to secure funding for schemes.

Real Goods Ad

Encourage us all to follow our noses, look deep within ourselves, find out what we REALLY want to do, then DO IT The miles of back country between ourselves and the rest of America are not an insurmountable barrier to creating our livelihoods in beautiful and natural places. Running one's own business from a remote location offers many advantages and three common problems 1) no electricity, 2) no communications, and 3) difficult transportation. This article offers solutions to no power and no telephone, and sadly, no real solution for the difficulties of backwoods transport. Electric Tools in the Outback

Approaching

For the last twenty-five years, my wife Michelle and I have been consciously working on reducing our impact on the planet. We are both vegetarians. We live simply, with solar thermal and solar-electric systems. I am self-employed, designing and installing renewable energy systems in our local area. Over the last three years, I've been reading more and more about our dwindling global oil supplies and specifically peak oil. My research has convinced me that we must do more.

Windpower

For nearly twenty years Bergey WindPower has been America's leading supplier of wind energy systems for rural homes*, farms, and small businesses. This year we are introducing our exclusive 5-year warranty and our advanced UL-certified GridTek 10 inverter. Whether you want a total installation from a certified Bergey dealer or you want to save money by installing it yourself, Bergey WindPower can help you to power your dream with the power of the wind.

Hot water

Heating water using solar collectors or air-to-water heat pumps can be a viable source of energy that can reduce gas or electricity consumption for heating water by around 50 to 70 , depending on the latitude as well as the behaviour of the hot water users. Using most hot water in the evening with an electric or natural gas back-up system installed to raise the temperature over night prevents the solar system from making a significant contribution compared with using the water in the morning. Most systems are installed on dwellings, but hotels, motels and small businesses can also benefit.

Good Manners

A renewable energy system now costs less than one-quarter mile of new utility power service. Land without utility service is still less expensive than land that is grid connected. For thousands of home power users, having the good manners to accept Nature's gift has allowed us to afford our homesteads. Many systems also electrify home-based businesses. The types of businesses, their size and profitability, are like any American business. All these home businesses lack is the power bill, the commute bill, and the office rent. Everything from magazines to turbines to soap to flutes is being made with home power systems. It is very good manners to support one's self without harming others.

Pakistan

APSENA Renewable Energy Conference, December 15-20, 1996, Islamabad, Pakistan. Association of Pakistani Scientists and Engineers of North America (APSENA) had its 13th Annual Conference at Oklahoma City, OK during July 26-28, 1996. Members participating in this conference felt that since Pakistan is experiencing an acute shortage of energy due to many reasons, it would be worthwhile to introduce Renewable Energy alternatives to Pakistani citizens, entrepreneurs, and investors to meet the growing demands of energy in that part of the world. APSENA holds bi-ennial conferences in the capital city of Islamabad, Pakistan, the membership feels that it should included American Manufacturers willing to participate in such a conference to display their technologies or products, as there is a potential market for U.S. exporters to supplement energy shortages. CONTACT Bashir A. Syed, Senior Engineer Physicist, Member APSENA, Lockheed Martin SIS, at NASA JSC, Houston, TX Phone Home 713-286-3726,...

Damian Miller

Damian Miller is a leading expert on solar energy in emerging markets. He was born and raised in New York City, before moving to Britain where he completed his schooling. He holds a PhD from the University of Cambridge (Trinity College), where he was based at the Judge Business School, and his dissertation addressed the role of entrepreneurs in the diffusion of solar photovoltaic technology in Asia. After finishing his PhD in 1998 he put his research findings into practice, becoming Shell Solar's Director of Rural Operations and establishing solar subsidiaries in India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Indonesia. He also implemented a large-scale solar project in China and managed joint ventures in Morocco and South Africa. During this time he worked closely with multilateral and bilateral development agencies and emerging market governments to help grow local solar markets, overseeing the connection of more than 125,000 solar homes. At the end of 2006 he set up Orb Energy in India. In...

Future Plans

This will yield power units from 2.5 to 15 KW. We are struggling to have the closed-loop process completed and ready in that same first year, and if possible the very first MEG units will be close-looped and self-powered. At the end of the second year or before, we plan to have the close-looped basic MEG unit in 10 KW size, again with synchronizer so that up to six MEG units can be synchronized in an array. That will cover the 10 - 60 KW power system size, which is ideal for homes and small businesses. Once the units go on the world market, we believe that the market will be extraordinarily dynamic and productive. We intend to license multiple companies for production and competition for various markets, with no single company being given total monopoly worldwide.

Project finance

Larger projects, and those developed by entrepreneurs, will tend to be based on project financing with a loan obtained from a bank or other financial institution. This has the advantage of reducing the requirement for capital from the developer but the loan repayment will have the first call on the income of the project. Project financing is also likely to offer tax advantages. If the loan is secured only on the project cash flow itself, this is referred to as 'limited recourse' financing. Alternatively, if the developer has a large parent company willing and able to provide suitable guarantees then the loan may be secured against the assets of the parent company which then appears as a liability on its balance sheet. Clearly the lenders of the debt will prefer to guarantee their loan against the assets of a large stable company rather than the project alone and this will be reflected in the repayment terms that are available. The debt equity ratio can be as high as 80 percent but all...

Karadea

When I met Oswald at a 1992 Nairobi Solar Workshop, KARADEA had already installed over 50 lighting systems in homes, businesses, and the district library. He asked me and Harry Burris (long-time solar hand in Africa) to help KARADEA plan a solar strategy. We put together a PV program to develop low-cost lighting systems for small businesses and homes, and train and support local people to install, maintain, and market systems. In July '93, CSC provided KARADEA with support to equip a training facility and to conduct an initial training course. The Solar Electric Light Fund contributed money enabling participation of two trainees from Maasailand, Tanzania.

Energy

In many cases, the product is not a new invention, but a new way of combining old ideas into new, specialized modes. Consider the 12 VDC load centers used in many PV systems. These load centers are custom-made by small businesses for specific applications. They use off-the-shelf components assembled for a new and specific job. The renewable energy market abounds with product niches yearning to be filled. Products are finding new applications daily. For example, recreational vehicles can greatly benefit from PV and inverter technologies. Outdoor security lighting is now much less expensive if PV powered. So, You Want to Start a Business and Why Small Businesses Fail by William Delaney

Not To Be Missed

Nikola Tesla Free Energy

Editorial Reviews Society for the History of Technology, Antenna Newsletter, December 1992, page 3 This material provides both technical and anecdotal evidence on Tesla's experiments with and applications of wireless telegraphy and telephony. In addition to their new data, these transcripts also provide readers with a different sense of Tesla's personality. QST, March 1995, page 116 The subject of this book is a collection of Interviews conducted with Tesla by his legal counsel in 1916. The Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. sought to trample all competition by patenting every device used in radio communication. Tesla was interviewed to document his prior work and accomplishments, and thus protect them from rapacious Marconi Co. Although the interview took place over seven days, the editor has assembled the transcript into a contiguous document And what a document Tesla well knew what fascinating work he was doing, and you can sense his enthusiasm as he describes apparatus capable of...

Safa Tampoo In Nepal

Faire Jambage Bois Dans Mur Pierre

Institutional Structure & Support The EV industry as a whole is forging ahead towards the process of institutionalization. To protect the interest of EV stakeholders, various institutions are emerging. There are associations of safa tempo owners, charging stations, drivers, and manufacturers. The most notable of them is Clean Locomotive Entrepreneurs'Association of Nepal (CLEAN), an association of safa tempo owners. It spearheaded the polluting vehicles drive-out campaign, and resisted the onslaughts of polluting vehicles (diesel Vikram tempos), which is quite remarkable. electricity tariffs from the government. The government has mandates under which banks are obliged to provide loans to the entrepreneurs who want to buy and operate safa tempos. Many entrepreneurs have benefited from this arrangement.

Prologue

Having found some theoretical basis for my research, I needed to focus on just one renewable energy technology, renewables as a sector being too broad, with different technologies having different reasons for being, or not being, used more widely. I initially thought that, given the scale of the problem, the scale of the solution needed to be BIG to be worthy of future enquiry. So it was with some surprise that I found myself so intrigued by a much smaller technology solar photovoltaic (PV) panels applied at the decentralized level -households and small businesses - in rural areas of emerging markets. What caught my attention was simple. Compared to a lot of other renewables at the time, this technology was already being sold in some emerging markets on a commercial basis. Its being sold commercially was very compelling, as it portended the possibility of self-sustaining and ever-growing diffusion of solar photovoltaic technology. Moreover, although the application was small, enough...

Smart metering

Existing standard electricity meters have a long lifespan and it is often not cost-effective to replace them early, given their initial cost. In some countries, where deregulation allows for fairly quick switching between energy companies by customers, the ownership and replacement of company-specific meters can cause major problems. Continual development means that to date, there has been poor standardisation of the technology and the lack of any regulatory requirement for smart meters is a concern in many cities. The barriers to greater deployment can be overcome by regulations, certification and subsidies for installation. This is the case in the Netherlands, where the government has amended the Electricity Act 1998 to improve the operation of the market by installing smart meters in each of the 7 million households and small businesses by 2014 (unless a householder rejects having the meter installed on privacy grounds) (Spencer-Jones, 2007). While the four grid operators own the...

The Productive Entrepreneur

The Productive Entrepreneur

Entrepreneurs and business owners. Discover 45 Insightful Tips To Motivate, Encourage And Energize You To Become A Successful Entrepreneur. These Tips Will Move You Forward Towards Your Goals As An Entrepreneur. Use It As A Handbook Whenever You Need To Get Motivated.

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