Causes Of The Accidents

Seven generic cause categories of hydrogen accidents have been defined by Balthasar and Schodel [21] prepared for the hydrogen safety manual for the Commission of the European Communities, as shown in Table C-3. The accident categories were defined based on the hydrogen accident report for the US DOE. Additionally, the causes of the 96 NASA incidents (as described in section C. 1.9) are presented in Table C-4.

Table C-3 Cause of hydrogen accidents [21]

Categories

Incident (%)

Undetected leaks

22

Hydrogen-oxygen off gas explosion

17

Piping and pressure vessel rupture

14

Inadequate inert gas purging

8

Vents and exhaust systems incidents

7

Hydrogen-chlorine incidents

7

Other incidents

25

T o t a l

100

Table C-4 NASA operation incidents [148]

Categories

Incident (%)

Work area deficiencies

26

Procedure deficiencies

25

Design deficiencies

22

Planning deficiencies

14

Components malfunction

8

Material incompatibility

3

T o t a l

100

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