E TNT Model

The program has three methods for calculating the effects of explosions, i.e. TNT, Multi-Energy, and Baker Strehlow. The study uses TNT method (as the program default) to calculate explosion impacts from the hydrogen system. Therefore, the appendix discuses this model only.

The program calculates the mass of TNT that is equivalent to the effective flammable mass in the cloud [49]:

m eff m eff

where HTNT = 4.7 x 106 J kg-1 is the heat of combustion of TNT using up its own oxygen, i.e. without additional oxygen from the atmosphere, Hcomb= 191.93 MJ/kg (for hydrogen), m is the mass in the cloud at the time of the explosion, X' is the explosion efficiency (taken from the PHAST Library), and f is the ground reflection factor, set to 1 for an air burst, and 2 for a ground burst.

The explosion radius, R', is the distance from the explosion center to the distance of interest:

If mXHcombustion is less than 10 J then the overpressure is set to zero. Otherwise, the overpressure Po is calculated using an approximation of the Kingery and Bulmash curves as published in [115]:

The explosion radius R' is calculated from:

Zm TNT

where:

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