Hydrogen Storage at Depot

The study considered the large-scale liquid hydrogen storage (as depot), having a capacity of 270 m3 (270,000 litres), and situated in Ingolstadt. It is used to store hydrogen in the liquid phase (± 16,000 kg of LH2) at temperature of -253°C and pressure of 1.3 bar (Section 3.4). The hydrogen plant is subjected to the accident regulation of German "Storfallverordnung" [78]. The hydrogen storage has a maximum liquid inventory of 16 tons, which is more than the quantity thresholds (Section 5.1). Therefore it is required to implement a major-accident prevention plan, which includes performing risk analysis and implementing a safety management system. A systematic safety study was performed based on the HAZOP method by the German technical inspection agency (TÜV) [78]. The essential hazards assumed were:

(1) Incorrect coupling of the liquid hydrogen connection during filling of trailers; (2) Loss of the insulation vacuum of the LH2 tank followed by blow-out of the safety valve via vent line and the 22 m high stack, which is designed for low temperature.

The LH2 storage plant mainly consists of a cryogenic, double-walled, and vacuum super-insulated tank and its piping system. The piping system consists of lines linking the different pieces of equipment, filling lines, withdrawal lines, and so on. Each of them, of course, may break or rupture in an infinite number of ways. By considering the factors above (section 5.1), the following accident scenarios were assessed: ( ) Instantaneous release of the complete hydrogen inventory caused by tank rupture; (2) Continuous release of hydrogen in liquid or vapour phase through a hole in the tank; (3) Continuous release of hydrogen in vapour phase through relief valves; (4) Continuous release of hydrogen in vapour phase through rupture discs; (5) Continuous release of hydrogen release in vapour phase due to a full-bore rupture of the vapour lines; (5) Continuous release of hydrogen in the liquid phase due to a full-bore rupture of the liquid lines.

The summary of the scenarios considered for the hydrogen plant is given in Table 5-2. The table gave similar information given in Table 5-1. The LH2 storage has an additional scenario because it includes liquid and vapour phases.

Table 5-2 List of accident scenarios considered for the LH2 storage at depot

Undesired events

Inner diameter (mm)

Discharge Data

Scena

Release

Type of

Flowrate

Duration

rios

Type

Phase

Tank

Pipe

Hole

Direction

Bund

(kg/s) or mass (kg)

(s, or inst)

A

Tank rupture

Liquid

N/A

-

-

-

N/A

16248

inst.

B

Tank leak

Liquid

N/A

-

127

Down

N/A

84.4

192.6

C

Relief valve

Vapor

N/A

50.8

50.8

Vertical

N/A

3.5

3600

D

Rupture disc

Vapor

N/A

50.8

50.8

Vertical

N/A

3.6

3600

E

Line rupture

Vapor

N/A

50.8

50.8

Vertical

N/A

4.2

3600

F

Line rupture

Liquid

N/A

127

127

Vertical

N/A

30.5

532.7

Table 5-3 List of accident scenarios considered for the L

Table 5-3 List of accident scenarios considered for the L

H2 storage at filling station

Scena rios

Undesired events

Inner diameter (mm)

Release Direction

Type of Bund Surface

Discharge Data

Type

Phase

Tank

Pipe

Hole

Flowrate (kg/s) or mass (kg)

Duration (s, or inst)

A

Tank rupture

Liquid

2500

-

-

-

N/A

800

inst.

B

Tank leak

Liquid

2500

-

76.2

Down

N/A

30.4

26.3

C

Relieve valve

Vapor

2500

50.8

12.7

Vertical

N/A

0.5

1566

D

rupture disc

vapor

2500

50.8

50.8

Vertical

N/A

3.6

223.4

E

Line rupture

Vapor

2500

50.8

50.8

Vertical

N/A

4.2

192.0

F

Line rupture

Liquid

2500

76.2

76.2

Vertical

N/A

9.4

85.4

H2 storage at filling station

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