List Of Figures

Number Pages

21 Simple phase diagram of hydrogen 5

22 Minimum ignition energy of hydrogen compared with methane 7

23 Structure of a hydrogen energy economy for an industrial country 11

24 Hydrogen resources and production technologies 12

25 Typical electrolysis cell 13

26 Steam reforming process 14

27 Adiabatic compression work for hydrogen, helium and methane 15

28 Energy required for adiabatic and isothermal ideal-gas compression of H2 15

29 Typical energy requirements for the liquefaction of 1 kg hydrogen 16

210 Schematic of the Claude process for hydrogen liquefaction 17

211 Storage volume and weight of comparative fuels 18

212 Combined insulation of vacuum, MLI, and VCS techniques 20

213 Combustion chamber for gasoline and hydrogen fuelled engines 23

214 Work principles and types of fuel cells 26

215 Power generating systems efficiency comparison 28

216 Development of final energy consumption of Germany 29

217 Development of energy-related CO2 emission in Germany 30

218 Development of private cars in Germany 32

219 Hydrogen private cars scenario for Germany 33

220 Final energy demand households, Germany 1999 36

31 Hydrogen production, transport, storage and end-use pathways 39

32 A solar-hydrogen plant in Neunburg vorm Wald 41

33 Diagram of the solar-hydrogen plant 41

3-4 GH2 storage at the solar-hydrogen plant 42

3 5 Simplified P&ID of the GH2 storage 42

36 Process flow diagram of the liquefaction plant 43

37 Hydrogen liquefaction plant in Germany 44

38 Simplified P&I diagram of the LH2 tank 45

39 Hydrogen fuelling station BVG, Berlin 46

310 Process flow diagram of a LCGH2 fuelling station 46

311 Simplified P&I diagram of the LH2 tank at filling station 47

312 Arrangement of main components of the BMW 735i with ICE 49

313 LH2 tank (Linde) installed for BMW hydrogen car 49

314 FC-CHPs at Lyserstrasse in Hamburg-Bahrenfeld 51

315 Block diagram of a hydrogen fuelled FC-CHP for household applications 51

3-16 Simplified P&ID of the LH2 tank at CHP plant 52

317 Hydrogen truck delivery for the city 56

318 Schema of an LH2 tank truck 57

319 Simplified P&I diagram of an LH2 tank truck 57

41 The activities in the risk management process 60

42 Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) 61

43 Calculation procedures of F&E Index 64

44 Penalty of liquids or gases in storage 65

45 Event Tree Diagram of LH2 Releases 72

46 Event Tree Diagram of GH2 Release 73

47 UDM cloud geometry for continuous release 76

48 The effect zone for a vapour cloud explosion 77

49 The Flammable zone of flash fire from instantaneous release 78

410 Dispersion of cloud represented by a half-ellipse 78

411 The fatal effect zone for a fireball or BLEVE 79

412 The Fatal effect zone for a jet fire 80

413 The Fatal effect zone for a pool fire 81

414 Serious injury/fatality levels for thermal radiation 82

415 Thermal effect of hydrogen fire on man 83

416 Peak overpressure impacts on structures 84

417 Peak overpressure of hydrogen explosion on man 85

418 Example of an individual risk, i.e. risk profile 87

419 Example of an F-N curve for a single liquefied flammable gas 88

420 The risk calculation model environment 89

421 F-N or F-C curve complementary probability distribution 90

51 Side view of the hydrogen release from different events 108

52 Centre line concentration versus distance of the hydrogen release 109

53 Footprint of the hydrogen release for a concentration of 2% 109

54 Radiation vs distance for jet fire for different release events 110

55 Effect zones (1% fatality) of the jet fires for for different event types m

56 Radiation vs distance of the fireball for the two hydrogen study objects 111

57 Effect zones (1% fatality) of the fireball for the two hydrogen study object 113

58 Effect zones of the flash fires for the two study objects 114

59 Early explosion overpressure vs distance of the two hydrogen objects 115

510 Effect zone (0.01% fatality) of the early explosion for the two study object.. 115

511 Peak overpressure vs distance of the late explosion 116

512 Effect zones (0.01% fatality) of late explosion for the two study objects 117

513 Individual Risk profiles of the hydrogen cycle 121

514 Societal risks (FN-Curves) of the hydrogen cycle 121

515 Societal risks (FN-Curves) of the hydrogen cycles with ALARP criteria 124

516 Intensity radii for LH2 and various capacity of LPG 127

517 Flash fire impacts of LH2 and various capacity of LPG 127

518 Individual risk comparisons between of hydrogen and LPG storages 128

519 Individual risk comparisons between of hydrogen and LPG transports 128

520 f-N curves comparison of the hydrogen and LPG storages 129

5-21 F-N curves comparison of the hydrogen and LPG transportation 130

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