Methodology

Safety evaluation is performed by safety analysis methods, which means that a systematic examination of the structure and function of a process plant system aimed at identifying potential accident contributors, evaluating the resulting risk, and finding risk-reducing measures [107]. The study uses a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) method to calculate and evaluate risk quantitatively. The method mainly consists of five elements, i.e. hazards identification, probabilistic safety analysis, consequences analysis, risk estimation, and risk evaluation.

Firstly, one or more realistic representatives system of hydrogen energy cycles from [200, 212, 187, 181, 78, 79, 199, 96, 171, 176] had been evaluated and selected as basis for the work (study objects). Safety-relevant of hydrogen properties and incidents relating to hydrogen were also compiled and evaluated. Appropriate technical components and equipments of the selected hydrogen study objects were then assigned, and the appropriate process flow of the system was also determined. Hazard identification methods had been carried out to determine some conceivable accident scenarios and definitions of the top events. Based on the above information the associated event tree and fault tree diagrams were developed. The failure data of the technical plants and human error probabilities for quantitative evaluation were collected and evaluated. It continues with quantitative evaluation of fault tree and event tree to calculate the expected frequencies of the initial events and the associated accident outcomes. The weak point analysis is elaborated on a basis for technical improvements. Its validity is proved by further probabilistic evaluation. The consequences of the accident outcomes (i.e. end points of the event tree diagrams) are simulated with existing consequence models (e.g. PHAST). They include discharge and dispersion modelling, fire and explosion effects modelling, and the estimation of incident impacts on people. The risk is estimated by combining the potential consequences and the expected frequencies of the accident outcomes. Finally, the risks are evaluated which may be done by comparing with legally required risk criteria, and/or comparison with the similar technologies.

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