Risk Evaluation

Risk can be evaluated and risk criteria established using four different principles [140]. The principle of reasonableness says that an activity should not involve risks that by reasonable means could be avoided. Risks that by technically and economically reasonable means could be eliminated or reduced are always taken care of, irrespective of the actual risk level. The principle of proportionality means that the total risk that an activity involves should not be disproportionate to its benefits. By using the principle of distribution, risks should be legitimately distributed in society, related to the benefits of the activity involved. Single persons should not be exposed to disproportionate risk in comparison with the advantage that the activity affords them. The principle of avoiding catastrophes says that it is better that risks are realized in accidents with a lower number of fatalities. When discussing risk reduction, terms such as ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable) are frequently used. Detailed description of the risk criteria will be given in section 4.6.4.

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