Table of Contents

Acknowledgements i

Abstract iii

Table of contents v

List of figures viii

List of tables xii

1. INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Problem definition 1

1.2 Objectives 1

1.3 Methodology 2

1.4 Scope of works 2

1.5 Barriers 2

1.6 Structure of the dissertation 3

2. HYDROGEN ENERGY ECONOMY 4

2.1 Introduction 4

2.2 Hydrogen safety 5

2.2.1 Hydrogen safety properties 5

2.2.2 Hydrogen accidents 8

2.2.3 Hydrogen codes, standards, and regulations 9

2.3 Hydrogen energy cycle 10

2.3.1 Hydrogen production 11

2.3.1.1 Electrolysis 12

2.3.1.2 Reforming 13

2.3.2 Hydrogen storage and transportation 14

2.3.2.1 Compression and liquefaction 14

2.3.2.2 Hydrogen storage 17

2.3.2.3 Hydrogen transportation 21

2.3.3 Hydrogen energetic applications 22

2.3.3.1 Internal combustion engine 22

2.3.3.2 Fuel cells 25

2.4 The hydrogen scenarios considered 29

2.4.1 Traffics scenarios 30

2.4.2 Households scenarios 34

3. SCENARIO DESCRIPTION 38

3.1 Introduction 38

3.2 Outline of the hydrogen study objects 38

3.3 Hydrogen production 40

3.3.1 System description 40

3.3.2 The GH2 storage 41

3.4 Hydrogen storage 43

3.4.1 System description 43

3.4.2 The LH2 storage 44

3.5 Hydrogen fuelling station 45

3.5.1 System description 45

3.5.2 The LH2 storage 47

3.6 Hydrogen energetic applications 48

3.6.1 Hydrogen private car 48

3.6.2 Hydrogen for household applications 50

3.7 Hydrogen transportation 54

3.7.1 Road tanker truck 55

3.7.2 Hydrogen pipeline 57

4. RISK ASSESSMENT METHODS 60

4.1 Introduction 60

4.2 Quantitative risk assessment 60

4.2.1 Risk analysis 61

4.2.2 Risk evaluation 62

4.3 Hazard Identification 62

4.3.1 Hazard identification techniques 62

4.3.2 Accident scenarios of the study objects 65

4.4 Estimating frequency 67

4.4.1 Fault tree analysis 67

4.4.1.1 Analytical approach 68

4.4.1.2 Equipment reliability data 69

4.4.2 Direct use of base failure data 69

4.4.2.1 Estimation of accident frequency for the onboard LH2

storage 70

4.4.2.2 Estimation of accident frequency for the road transportation 70

4.4.2.3 Estimation of failure frequency for a pipeline 71

4.4.3 Event Tree Analysis 72

4.4.3.1 Even tree for the hydrogen release 72

4.4.3.2 Conditional probabilities 73

4.5 Consequence modelling 75

4.5.1 Source models 75

4.5.2 Dispersion models 76

4.5.3 Fire and explosion models 76

4.5.3.1 Explosion 77

4.5.3.2 Flash fire 78

4.5.3.3 BLEVE and fireball 79

4.5.3.5 Pool fire 81

4.5.4 Impacts models 81

4.5.4.1 Thermal impacts 82

4.5.4.2 Overpressure impacts 83

4.6 Risk Estimation 86

4.6.1 Risk measures and presentation 86

4.6.1.1 Individual risk 87

4.6.1.2 Societal risk 88

4.6.2 Risk calculation 88

4.6.2.1 Analytical approach 88

4.6.2.2 Drawing risk profile 90

4.6.3 Risk acceptance criteria 91

5. THE QRA RESULTS AND EVALUATIONS 93

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 The accident scenarios 93

5.2.1 Hydrogen production 94

5.2.2 Hydrogen storage at depot 94

5.2.3 Hydrogen filling station 95

5.2.4 Energetic use of hydrogen 96

5.2.5 Hydrogen transportation 97

5.3 Frequency estimation results 98

5.3.1 Production plant (GH2) 98

5.3.2 Storage at depot (LH2) 100

5.3.3 Hydrogen filling station (LH2) 101

5.3.5 Hydrogen private car (LH2) 103

5.3.6 Road tanker truck (LH2) 105

5.3.7 Hydrogen pipeline (GH2) 106

5.4 Consequence analysis results 107

5.4.1 Dispersion 108

5.4.2 Fire and explosion 110

5.5 Risk Estimation results 118

5.5.1 Risk calculation 118

5.5.2 Risk presentation 121

5.5.2.1 Individual risk 121

5.5.2.2 Societal risk 122

5.6 Risk evaluation 123

5.6.1 Summary of the numerical results 123

5.6.2 Evaluation against risk criteria 125

5.6.3 Comparison with the LPG study 127

6. SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK 131

BIBLIOGRAPHY 134

APPENDIXES

A. Hydrogen safety properties 146

B. Hydrogen production technologies 155

C. Hydrogen accidents 163

D. Hydrogen codes, standards, and regulations 168

E. Consequence models used in the study 172

F. Fault tree methods used in the study 184

G. Fault tree analysis of the hydrogen study objects 192

H. Summary of the risk calculation results 226

Lebenslauf 236

Living Off The Grid

Living Off The Grid

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Living Off The Grid. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To When Living Within The Grid Is Not Making Sense Anymore.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment