The Hydrogen Scenarios Considered

Germany, the world fifth largest consumer of energy, depends heavily on energy import to meet energy demand. Nearly all petroleum and about 80% of natural gas used are imported [176]. About one fourth of final energy consumption of the country (1990-1999) is demanded by industry. The traffic sector has nearly 30 % followed by households with 28.5 %. Small businesses hold a share of 16 % of the final energy consumption. The military is below one percent. It is also shown that the energy consumption of business dropped and industry and rose for households and traffic sectors (Figure 2.16).

Germany has relatively insignificant domestic energy sources and is heavily import-reliant to meet its energy demands. Coal accounted for 47% of the domestic energy production in 1999, nuclear power 30%, natural gas 14%, renewable sources (including hydro) 6%, and oil 2%. However, oil accounted for 38% of the energy consumption.

Germany has a strong commitment to protect its environment. For example, under the Kyoto Protocol of December, 1997, the country would have to go even further by reducing carbon emissions 8% by 2008-2012. Unfortunately, there have been continuing pollution problems in the country. For example, the total CO2 emissions in Germany decreased about 15 % during the 90s from 1014 Mio.ton to 859 Mio.ton. However, traffic and households sectors heightened their emissions. They increased by 12 % and 6 %, for traffic and households, respectively (Figure 2.17).

10000

9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 J 2000 1000

1990

-Military Small bussines Industry -Households -Traffic Total (PJ)

1992

1994

1996

1998

Fig. 2.16 Development of Final Energy Consumption of Germany [176, 120]

Considering the energy situation, the traffic and household sectors will play important roles in the future hydrogen based energy system in the country. Hydrogen as a sustainable and clean energy carrier offers the best solution for the energy problems faced by both sectors. Therefore, traffic and household sectors as realistic hydrogen use scenarios for the future hydrogen based energy system in Germany are considered in the study. This section discusses the scenarios in more detail.

1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000

Fig. 2.17 Development of energy-related CO2 emission in Germany[176, 120] 2.4.1 Traffic Scenarios

1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000

Fig. 2.17 Development of energy-related CO2 emission in Germany[176, 120] 2.4.1 Traffic Scenarios

Traffic is one of the key factors of global economies and for the mobility of people. Within the traffic sector, land transport, and especially road transport, can contribute to a large extent to the reduction of vehicle emissions by the implementation of better fuels and engines. To fulfil the Kyoto reduction targets for CO2 emissions, the traffic sector will have to contribute further. Therefore, the German government supports the search for future fuels (including hydrogen) that will be based on renewable energies with extremely low CO2 emissions in the overall energy chain.

2.4.1.1 Road Traffic Population

Table 2-5 shows the development of the number of private cars and of all vehicles in Germany (1985-2003). The private cars account for over 80% of the road transport, followed by trucks (5%), motorcycles (6%), tractors (0.3%), and buses (0.2%). In general, road transport has shown a steady the growth since 1985.

Table 2-5. Road traffic populations in Germany [x 1000] [

Table 2-5. Road traffic populations in Germany [x 1000] [

Vehicle Type

1985

1990

1995

2000

2001

2002

2003

Private cars (incl. Stationwagon)

25.845

30.685

40.404

42.840

44.307

44.605

44.916

Buses (incl. Trolleys)

69

70

86

86

87

85

86

Trucks

1.281

1.389

2.215

2.527

2.640

2.632

2.602

Tractor-traillers

64

78

124

162

177

179

180

Motor cycles (excl. small m'cycle)

993

1.233

2.067

2.767

2.905

2.985

3.051

Micscellaneous

2.366

2.293

2.590

2.983

3.074

3.114

3.147

Total

30.618

35.748

47.486

51.365

53.190

53.600

53.982

Total distances travelled by each vehicle types in Germany are presented in Table 2-6. For example, the private cars (Pkw) with the total population of about 45 millions have the total distance (in 2003) of 577.8 x 109 km. It means that one car travels about 13,000 km/yr. Meanwhile, buses and trucks have travelled about 42,000 km/yr and 22,000 km/yr, respectively.

Table 2-6. Distance travelled by vehicle types in Germany [in 10 ve

Table 2-6. Distance travelled by vehicle types in Germany [in 10 ve h. km] [BASt]

Vehicle Type

1985

1990

1995

2000

2001

2002

2003

Private cars (incl. stationwagon)

332.5

431.5

535.1

559.5

575.5

583.6

577.8

Buses (incl. Trolleys)

2.9

3.1

3.7

3.7

3.7

3.6

3.6

Trucks

29.9

33.1

52.8

58.7

60.2

58.3

57.7

Tractor-traillers

4.4

5.8

9.7

13.1

13.7

13.7

14.2

Motor cycles (incl. mofas)

10.8

8.6

13.6

16.8

17.8

16.0

16.4

Micscellaneous

3.8

6.2

9.6

11.5

11.8

12.1

12.5

Total

384.3

488.3

624.5

663.3

682.7

687.3

Table 2-7. Traffic ^ Accidents in Germany (x

Table 2-7. Traffic ^ Accidents in Germany (x

Accident Number

1985

1990

1995

2000

2001

2002

2003

Damage to people

328

340

388

383

375

362

355

- of which result in injuries

319

332

379

375

368

355

348

- of which result in fatalities

8

8

9

8

7

7

7

Not damage to people

1513

1671

1850

1967

1998

1927

1905

Total Accidents

1840

2011

2238

2350

2374

2289

2260

2.4.1.2 Road Traffic Accident

2.4.1.2 Road Traffic Accident

Table 2-7 shows that the total number of the road traffic accidents in Germany increased by 29% from 1,840,000 accidents (in 1985) to the maximum number of 2,374,000 accidents (in 2001). The accident decreased by 5% to 2,260,000 accidents (in 2003). Meanwhile, the accidents resulted to injuries and fatalities were remains constant. This number, however, is smaller compared to other countries in Europe (e.g. France, Italy, etc).

2.4.1.3 Hydrogen Vehicle Scenarios

Hydrogen as a new vehicle fuel provides the opportunity for both, the reduction or avoidance of polluting emissions and the drastic reduction of the noise level produced. Hydrogen operated in internal combustion engines has a low noise potential and significantly reduces pollutant levels but especially the fuel cell electric drive opens the chance for very low noise levels at zero emission capability. Hydrogen is a "clean burning" fuel, contributing to significantly reduce local emissions where it is used. If hydrogen is derived from renewable resources, if carbon is successfully sequestered, or if environmentally benign nuclear power sources can be developed, the total environmental impact of hydrogen as a fuel would be minimal. Disadvantage of hydrogen in principal, not representing a primary but only a secondary energy carrier, at long term can be transformed into its advantage. It can be derived from various sources. This diversity means that different geographic regions can obtain hydrogen from whatever feedstock is available which would tend to reduce concerns over regional energy security.

Hydrogen vehicles and the infrastructure scenarios have been studied by numerous companies and organizations. They include: (1) Transport Energy Strategy (TES) of German automobile and energy industry database for consensus process on alternative fuels in cooperation with the German Ministry of Transport; (2) European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP), coordination of harmonized EU-wide regulations for hydrogen vehicles and their refueling infrastructure; (3) Hydrogen Network (HYNET) of European hydrogen industry (in preparation) secretariat for a European industry interest and eventually lobby group to foster hydrogen energy; (4) L-B- Systemtechnik (LBST) is the commercial sister company of the non-profit Ludwig-Bolkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, support industry, politics, and non-governmental organizations. A hydrogen fuelled vehicles scenario for Germany till the year of 2050 is shown in Figure 2.18.

Fig. 2.18 Hydrogen private cars (Pkw) scenario for Germany [34] 2.4.1.3.1 Fuelling Stations

Hydrogen vehicle (fuel cell or ICE) is anticipated to expand rapidly. It may be prudent for fuelling station designs to accommodate future dispensing capacity growth. There are several approaches to the growth issue and some types of stations can be expanded to higher capacities more easily than others. One solution is to design the station for the expected growth instead of the near-term capacity requirement. This approach certainly increases initial cost, but it may result in lower life-cycle costs.

a. Fuelling Station Design

The number of vehicles that will refuel at a station, vehicle driving patterns, and vehicle fuel economies will determine the quantity of hydrogen to be dispensed. The station design must satisfy the demand. For fleet stations, the number of vehicles will generally be known or determinable. For stations serving vehicles that may refuel at a variety of sites, the number of vehicles refuelling per day may vary. The average number of vehicles refuelling at the station must then be estimated. The vehicle driving patterns determine how many kilometres vehicles drive per day. In some cases, the mileage may be well known (i.e., in transit bus fleets). In other cases, vehicle mileage may vary significantly from day to day. For this situation, the average vehicle mileage must be estimated for the vehicles refuelling at the station. In general, estimates should be conservative (overestimates); otherwise, the station design may not provide the necessary capacity.

Fuel usage for typical hydrogen vehicles is shown in Table 2-8. For example, light-duty fuel cell vehicles are assumed to have a fuel economy of roughly 0.012 kg/km for hydrogen. If the vehicle is driven 20,000 km per year, the average daily hydrogen fuel use will be 0.68 kg/day.

Table 2-8. Fuel usage of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles [39]

Vehicle Type

Fuel consumption

Mileage (km/yr)

Average Daily Usage (kg/day)

kg/km

km/kg

Light Duty

0.012

80.5

20,000

0.68

Transit Bus

0.087

11.5

65,000

15.5

b. Type and Size of the Station

In order to properly service hydrogen vehicles, the station design must ensure that the station components can dispense the expected daily hydrogen usage in the fuelling time available. In general there are two types of hydrogen fuelling station designs to be considered for the hydrogen economy. They include stations that receive and store hydrogen delivered as a compressed gas and cryogenic liquid; and the stations that produce hydrogen on-site by reforming natural gas (or some other hydrocarbon feedstock) or electrolysis.

Station designs using tube trailers or liquid hydrogen cryogenic tanks store quantities of hydrogen, which are periodically replenished when the tube trailers are replaced or the liquid tanks are refilled. The hydrogen is typically replenished on time scales longer than one day so the storage components must store significantly more than the daily hydrogen usage. Liquid hydrogen tanks can store very large quantities and do not limit the station throughput. Tube trailers store roughly 275 kg and mobile fuelling concepts store considerably less. The daily hydrogen usage should generally be less than this amount; otherwise, the trailer or mobile fueler would have to be replaced too often.

Station designs using electrolysers or on-site reformers produce hydrogen at a specified rate. If these components cannot produce hydrogen as quickly as the refuelling requires, there is a potential bottleneck. Buffer or cascade storage (which is discussed subsequently) can ease the production requirement over short time intervals, but the overall daily hydrogen production capacity must be greater than or equal to the average daily dispensing requirement.

Fig. 2.19 Selected planned hydrogen filling stations in Germany and worldwide [210]

c. Development Scenarios

Currently, there are about 16 units of hydrogen fuelling stations installed in Germany (Table 2-9). They are located in several cities such as M√ľnchen, Hamburg, Berlin, and so on. The world first public hydrogen fuelling station was opened as part of the Aral station in Messedam-Berlin on November 12, 2004. In general, the hydrogen fuelling stations store and deliver hydrogen in two forms, i.e. liquid and compressed gas.

Table 2-9. Lists of hydrogen filling station by country and technology [214]

Country Number Company Technology

Table 2-9. Lists of hydrogen filling station by country and technology [214]

Country Number Company Technology

US

25

Air Products and Chemical; Stuart

GH2 and LH2 facilities; H2 from NG

Germany

16

Linde, BMW, Total, BP, Aral

H2 from natural gas; electrolysis

Japan

11

Linde, Senju, Honda, Toyota

Electrolysis; oil, gas-reformation

Canada

6

Stuart energy, Hydrogenics

Electrolysis; H2 from natural gas

Sweden

2

BP, Stuart Energy

Hydro electrolysis

Spain

2

BP, IMET

Electrolysis, H2 from natural gas

Portugal

2

BP, Arliquido

LH2 from crude oil

Italy

2

AEM, SOL

Electrolysis, LH2

Belgium

2

Messer Griesheim, Nexben

LH2 from natural gas

Australia

2

BP

GH2 from oil, gas & solar

Norway

1

Norsk Hydro

Electrolysis

Iceland

1

Royal Dutch Shell

Geothermal & Hydro electrolysis

Denmark

1

Linde

LH2

Luxemburg

1

Shell; Air Liquide

GH2

Netherlands

1

IMET; Linde

RE-based electrolysis

UK

1

BP

H2 from crude oil

China

1

British Oxygen

H2 from natural gas

Taiwan

1

Ztek Corp.

H2 from natural gas

South Korea

1

Pressure Product Industries

GH2

Singapore

1

Air product

GH2

Total

80

Regardless of all problems which might appear to exist today, hydrogen is expected to become one or even the leading energy source within the next 20-30 years [210]. After the initial learning phase (2005) there is a dramatic increase in the opening of hydrogen service stations. The first indicators of this learning phase are opening of H2 station in Berlin (2002), which is followed by another CUTE (Clean Urban Transport for Europe) project with opening the largest public hydrogen fuelling station in Berlin (2004). Altogether there are already about 80 fuelling stations around the world. Most facilities are in Germany, USA, and Japan. Fig. 2.19 shows hydrogen fuelling station scenario developed by [34, 210]. They estimated of 30 fleet fuelling stations will be available in the period 2005-2007, and 2000 stations in 2010.

d. Hydrogen Autobahn

Linde AG proposed to set up 40 hydrogen filling stations along the Autobahn on the "International Hydrogen Day, in Berlin on February 24, 2005. It makes it possible to drive pollution-free between all the major cities in Germany. The fuel stations will form a 1800-kilometre "hydrogen ring," connecting Berlin, Munich, Stuttgart and Cologne with fuel stations every 50 kilometres [220].

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