There are three categories of pulsed system and we will consider each in turn. These are drive-pulsed systems, energy-tapping pulsed systems and gravity free-energy pulsing systems. Here we will look at systems where an electrical pulse is used to cause the device to operate by creating a temporary magnetic field caused by electric current flowing through a coil or "electromagnet" as it is often called. Many of these systems are rather subtle in the way that they operate. One very well-known example of this is
The Adams Motor. The late Robert Adams, an electrical engineer of New Zealand designed and built an electric motor using permanent magnets on the rotor and pulsed electromagnets on the frame of the motor. He found that the output from his motor exceeded the input power by a large margin (800%).
The diagram of his motor most frequently shown to explain the basic operation is this one:
with all of the rotor magnets presenting a North pole to the electromagnets. The motor efficiency is high because the permanent magnets of the rotor are attracted to the (laminated) soft iron cores of the electromagnets. Then, the electromagnet coils are pulsed with just enough power to cancel the attraction as the rotor magnets move away again. It is important to understand this. While it is an option to push a large amount of electrical power into the electromagnet coils and generate a very large repulsion push as soon as it is strategic to do so, that method of operation does not produce the highest efficiency.
Phil Wood received instruction direct from Robert Adams, when Phil was building his replication of the Adams motor. He stresses that there are a number of important practical details which need to be considered when building a motor of this type. Phil states that the motor operation is as follows:
All magnets are of the same polarity on the rotor. The magnets are strongly attracted to the centre cores of the electromagnets. This is not because the coils are energised, but because the rotor magnets are strongly attracted to the iron cores of the electromagnets. This causes the rotator to move around, which generates current in the coils. As the magnets get close to being aligned with the coil cores, the coils are energised by the control electronics, but only with just enough power to neutralise the magnet's attraction, which otherwise would then hinder the continued rotation of the rotor magnets. This strategy allows the rotor to pass by without any hindrance and the pulse is maintained until the rotor moves to a position where the next pair of magnets are strongly attracted to the cores of the electromagnets. This minimises the electrical power needed to generate rotational power. It should be noted that the driving force comes from the magnets and not from the electrical power fed to the electromagnets.
An additional bonus is the collection of the Back Electro-Motive-Force ("BEMF") from the collapsing magnetic field in the coils of the electromagnets when their power is cut off. This energy is sent back to the battery which powers the electromagnets, and this raises the overall efficiency of the motor even further.
To summarise the operation thus far: we have a temporally free rotation as the magnets pull the rotor towards the electromagnet coils, which is Bonus 1. As this attraction happens, current is generated in the electromagnet coils and that current is used to charge the driving battery, which is Bonus 2.
Please remember that the coils must only be energised just enough (of the same polarity as the rotor magnets), to allow the rotor to continue spinning freely past the electromagnets. The coils must not be energised to a greater level than this. Once the magnets have passed, the electromagnets are switched off. This creates a surge of electrical power, and the diode recovery circuit collects the energy from the collapsing electromagnetic fields, which is Bonus 3.
So, although this motor design looks as if it is an electrical motor driven by powerful electrical pulses fed to the electromagnets, it is actually powered by the permanent magnets attached to the rotor, and the electrical part of the operation is merely a method of overcoming the backwards drag of the magnets just after they pass the cores of the electromagnets.
Now for some practical details. The optimum physical length of the coils can determined by using the "paper clip test". This is done by taking one of the permanent magnets used in the rotor, and measuring the distance at which that magnet just begins to lift one end of a 32 mm (1.25 inch) paper clip off the table. The optimum length of each coil (and it's core) from end to end is exactly the same as the distance at which the paper clip starts to lift.
The resistance of the coils in ohms is worked out by what voltage will be used to have the coils energised just enough to equal the strength of the permanent magnets being used in the rotor (the smaller the diameter of the coil wire, the higher the final coil resistance). An Adams motor built using these techniques, has the efficiency claimed by Robert Adams. Coefficient Of Performance ("COP") values of about eight have been achieved. That is another way of saying that the motor produces eight times more output energy than the input energy needed to make it operate.
The core material used in the electromagnets can be of various different types including advanced materials and alloys such as 'Somalloy'. The coil proportions are important as an electromagnet becomes less and less effective as its length increases, and eventually, the part furthest from the active end can actually be a hindrance to the effective operation. The best coil shape is one which you would not expect, with the coil width being, perhaps 50% greater than the coil length:
As indicated in the diagram above, the overall effectiveness of a single set of coils which have only one end used for active drive, can be enhanced by placing a ring of magnetic material to connect the unused ends, forming a magnetic link between them.
Phil also stresses that the speed at which the voltage is applied to, and removed from, the coils is very important. With very sharp voltage rises and falls, additional energy is drawn from the surrounding quantum energy field. The best switching FET which Phil has found is the IRF3205 and the best FET driver is the MC34151.
If using a Hall-effect semiconductor to synchronise the timing, say the UGN3503U which is very reliable, then the life of the Hall-effect device is much improved if it is provided with a 470 ohm resistor between it and the positive supply line, and a similar 470 ohm resistor between it and the negative line. These resistors in series with the Hall-effect device effectively "float" it and protect it from supply line spikes.
The Adams motor as described here, has a very high performance. However, Harold Aspden, a highly-respected British scientist who collaborated with Robert Adams, points out that efficient as it is, some of the energy is still being wasted.
The well-known explanatory diagram shown above, gives the impression that the electromagnets must be mounted so that they radiate out around the edge of the rotor. The diagram is drawn like that to show the operation clearly, and there is actually no great need for the motor to have that particular arrangement.
Harold, points out that there is a more efficient way to construct the motor:
The Adams motor expends electrical energy when it powers the coils of the electromagnets and it uses only one pole of the electromagnet as part of the motor drive. The magnetic energy generated at the other end of the electromagnet is wasted. You can therefore double the turning force ("torque") of the motor for no additional use of current if you place the electromagnets parallel to the shaft of the motor and use two (or more) rotor disks holding permanent magnets:
The layout for the Adams/Aspden motor shown above, suggests two different methods of generating an electrical output from the device, though the drive shaft can be used for mechanical output in its own right. However, shown here, on the right, a bank of eight pick-up coils collect energy from the magnets passing them.
On the left, the motor shaft is used to rotate a rectangular soft iron (or mu-metal) yoke, shown in red. At one point in its rotation, this yoke almost completely bridges the gap between the ends of a powerful C-shaped magnet. When the yoke rotates a further ninety degrees, the width, rather than the length, of the yoke is presented to the magnet which creates a significant air gap between the ends of the C-shaped magnet. As this is a very much poorer magnetic path, the rotation causes a fluctuation in the magnetic flux passing through the magnetic circuit and this is collected by the pick-up coils wound on that magnet. The advantage of this arrangement is that there is almost no change in the load on the shaft, no matter how heavily the pickup coils are loaded by current being drawn from them.
The power of an electromagnet increases with the number of turns of wire around its core. It also increases to a major degree as the current through the winding is increased. As the diameter of the winding increases, the length of wire needed for one turn increases directly in proportion to the diameter. As the resistance of the winding is proportional to the length of wire in the winding (you having already decided on the diameter of the wire), it follows that the magnetic effect for any given voltage applied to the winding, will be greater the smaller the diameter of the core.
The iron core loses power when pulsed, due to eddy currents flowing around inside the iron. The same effect applies to transformer frames, so they are constructed of thin sheets of metal, each insulated from its neighbours. It is suggested therefore, that the core of an electromagnet would be more efficient if it were not a solid piece of metal. It can be constructed from 'soft' iron wires cut to the appropriate length and insulated with lacquer which can withstand high voltages or failing that, enamel paint or nail varnish.
The number of electromagnets is a matter of personal choice. The sketch above shows eight electromagnets per stator, which gives the motor eight drive pulses per rotation. The motor works well with as few as two electromagnets. As shown, there can be as many rotors and stators in the motor as you choose. The gap between the electromagnet and the rotor magnets is of major importance and needs to be as small as it is practical to make it as magnetic force drops off very rapidly with distance from the magnet. The spacing of the rotor magnets needs to match exactly, the spacing of the electromagnets so that when an electrical pulse is applied, there is a rotor magnet opposite each electromagnet. There could be twice as many permanent magnets as electromagnets, or three times as many if you prefer.
The timing of the electrical pulses can be taken directly from the pick-up coil bank as its voltage rises as the magnets pass by. This varying voltage waveform can be sharpened up by using a Schmitt trigger circuit. The exact synchronisation can be governed by two monostables, one to set the delay before the pulse starts and one to control the exact length of the pulse.
Alternatively, a separate movable pick-up coil or Hall-effect sensor can be used and its position adjusted to give optimum operation. Another variation is to use a hole through one rotor beside each magnet and positioning an LED to shine through the holes, on to an opto device, to mark the rotation position.
There is a large amount of practical information on the construction of this type of motor at the web site http://members.fortunecity.com/freeenergy2000/adamsmotor.htm. For instance, Tim Harwood shares his experience having constructed many such motors and run many tests. A few of his observations are:
1. Ohm's Law does not apply to a correctly tuned Adams motor as the current flow is 'cold energy' rather than conventional energy being used. The greater the load on a properly set-up and tuned motor, the colder the stator coils and driving transistors become - the reverse of the situation for conventional energy where increased load requires increased current which produces increased heat. Small diameter wire can therefore be used for the electromagnet windings.
2. The cross-sectional area of each electromagnet core should be one quarter of the area of each rotor magnet.
3. The depth of the electromagnet winding should be the same as the maximum distance one rotor magnet can pull a paper-clip to itself.
4. Electromagnet wire of 24 AWG (0.511 mm dia, about 25 SWG) is a suitable size for windings.
5. The stator windings in series should have a (presumably DC) resistance of about ten ohms.
6. He uses steel nails with a 3/8" head, 100 mm shaft for the electromagnet cores. He selects these carefully from a large supply, to pick those with the best magnetic characteristics and which have a head slightly angled away from the official ninety degrees of a correctly manufactured head.
7. He finds that a electrical tape cover to both the electromagnet core before winding and outside the winding on completion, help the characteristics of the electromagnets.
8. He uses outward facing rotor magnets only and finds that having the South pole facing the electromagnets gives a slightly better result.
9. He tunes his motors using 12 Volts and then increases the voltage to 240 Volts.
10. If you use a Hall-effect semiconductor to trigger the timed pulses, he suggests buying several as they are very easy to damage.
11. The construction of the motor frame, supports, enclosure, etc. should avoid all magnetic materials as these can make the tuning difficult and they may block the tapping of 'cold' electricity.
12. It is important that the gap between the rotor magnets and the stator electromagnet cores does not exceed 1.5 mm. A gap of 1.0 to 1.5 mm works well but above that, the over-unity effect does not appear to occur. He has had outputs double that of the input for sustained periods. This he calls a "COP" of 2.0 - this web site is most definitely worth examining.
Harold Aspden and Robert Adams collaborated to develop and enhance Robert's motor design. They were awarded patent GB 2,282,708 in April 1995. This full patent forms part of this collection of documents and it is for an enhanced design which has one pole fewer in the stator than the number of poles in the rotor.
Practical details are included in the patent. For example, it is important for the width of the magnetic poles of the stator (viewed along the axle) to be only half as wide as the magnetic poles of the rotor. In fact, it can be an advantage for the stator poles to be less than half the width of the rotor poles. In the following diagrams, the magnetic poles of the stator are shown in blue and the magnetic poles of the rotor are shown in red.
With a motor of this type, it is important that the operational efficiency is as high as possible. In Fig.8 shown here, there are seven magnetic arms on the rotor, while there are eight electromagnets in the stator. This mismatch is important as this motor design operates by a stator magnet attracting a rotor magnet, and when the two line up, the stator electromagnet is pulsed to negate its magnetism. The mismatch in the number of poles causes any aligned pair of poles to have non-aligned poles 1800 away from them. This can be seen from the following diagram:
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