Compact and Perfect

A turbine of the type described here might have the following dimensions: A cylinder with an outer diameter of about 60 cm. A turbine-outlet which has a radius between 18.5 cm and 20 cm and a cross-sectional area of about 180 cm2. If water exits from this outlet at 6 m/s in the axial direction, then the mass-throughput will be about 100 Kg per second (with a pipe of 15 cm diameter and water flow of 100 litres per second - about 20 Km/h). Pump-blades at the turbine inlet having a radius between 10 cm and 15 cm giving a cross-sectional area of about 360 cm2 producing an axial water flow of 3.5 m/s. This throughput is achieved by a rotational rate of only 600 rpm.

Anybody can make calculations estimating the performance of this compact engine. Unlike any other known machine and unlike any of the other designs presented, this 'Centrifugal-Thrust-Engine' utilises these enormous centrifugal forces, not only for generating mechanical turning momentum but also for automatically creating a continuous, steady circulation of the working medium.

Naturally these general design principles need to be optimised until perfectly designed versions become available commercially. It is possible that all of the internal combustion engines currently in use in vehicles, will be replaced by this zero-consumption engine and, of course, a wide range of other power requirements will also be met by this design of turbine.

The Papp Engine.

The Hungarian, Josef Papp, invented an unusual engine system which genuinely appears to be very nearly "fuel-less". His design modifies an existing vehicle engine to operate on a fixed amount of gas. That is to say, the engine has no air intake and no exhaust and consequently, no inlet or exhaust valves. The engine cylinders contain a mixture of gases which have an Atomic Number below 19, specifically, 36% helium, 26% neon, 17% argon, 13% krypton, and 8% xenon by volume. The control system causes the contained gas to expand to drive the pistons down the cylinders and then contract to suck the pistons back up the cylinders. This effectively converts the engine into a one-stroke version where there are two power strokes per revolution from every cylinder.

A small amount of radioactive material is used in the engine, and I have seen it suggested that the engine should be screened to protect the user from radiation. I'm not sure that this is correct, but if it is, then it suggests that a matter to energy conversion is indeed taking place. It seems most unlikely that the minor amount of radioactive material in the engine itself could cause any significant radiation. The patent describes the material as "low-level" which suggests to me, material no more dangerous that the luminous paint that used to be used on the hands of clocks and watches.

Suitable engines must have an even number of cylinders as they operate in pairs. Josef's first prototype was a four-cylinder, 90 horsepower Volvo engine. He removed the intake and exhaust components and replaced the engine head with his own design. During a thirty-five minute test in a closed room, the engine generated a constant 300 horsepower output at 4,000 rpm. The electrical power needed to run the engine was produced by the standard engine alternator, which was also able to charge the car battery at the same time. Interestingly, an engine of this type, quite apart from having zero pollution emissions (other than heat), is quite capable of operating under water.

Josef, a draftsman and ex-pilot, emigrated from Hungary to Canada in 1957 where he lived until his death in April 1989. There is solid evidence that Josef built an engine of over 100 horsepower (75 kilowatts) that was "fuelled" by a mixture of inert (or "noble") gases. With no exhaust or cooling system, it had huge torque even at low rpm (776 foot-pounds at only 726 rpm in one certified test). Dozens of engineers, scientists, investors and a Federal judge with an engineering background saw the engine working in closed rooms for hours. This would not have been possible if the engine had been using fossil fuel. There was absolutely no exhaust and no visible provision for any exhaust. The engine ran cool at about 60°C (140°F) on its surface, as witnessed by several reliable observers. All these people became convinced of the engine's performance. They all failed to discover a hoax. Ongoing research in the United States (totally independent of Papp) has proved conclusively that inert gases, electrically triggered in various ways, can indeed explode with fantastic violence and energy release, melting metal parts and pushing pistons with large pressure pulses. Some of the people performing this work, or who have evaluated it, are experienced plasma physicists. Contemporary laboratory work has established that inert gases can be made to explode

In a demonstration on 27th October 1968 in the Californian desert, Cecil Baumgartner, representing the top management of the TRW aerospace corporation and others witnessed the detonation of one of the engine cylinders. In full public view, just a few cubic centimetres of the inert gas mixture was injected into the cylinder using a hypodermic needle. When the gas was electrically triggered, the thick steel walls of the cylinder were burst open in a dramatic way. William White, Edmund Karig, and James Green, observers from the Naval Underseas Warfare Laboratory had earlier sealed the chamber so that Papp or others could not insert explosives as part of a hoax. In 1983, an independent certification test was carried out on one of the Papp engines.

Joseph Papp was issued three United States patents for his process and engines:

US 3,680,431 on 1st August 1972 "Method and Means for Generating Explosive Forces" in which he states the general nature of the inert gas mixture necessary to produce explosive release of energy. He also suggests several of the triggering sources that may be involved. It appears that Papp is not offering full disclosure here, but there is no doubt that others who have examined this patent and followed its outline have already been able to obtain explosive detonations in inert gases. Caution: Anyone who tries to duplicate this process must be very careful about safety issues.

US 3,670,494 on 20th June 1972 "Method and Means of Converting Atomic Energy into Utilisable Kinetic Energy" and

US 4,428,193 on 31st January 1984 "Inert Gas Fuel, Fuel Preparation Apparatus and System for Extracting Useful Work from the Fuel". This patent shown here, is very detailed and provides information on building and operating engines of this type. It also gives considerable detail on apparatus for producing the optimum mixture of the necessary gasses.

At the time of writing, a web-based video of one of the Papp prototype engines running on a test bed, can be found at http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-2850891179207690407 although it must be said that a good deal of the footage is of very poor quality, having been taken many years ago. The video is particularly interesting in that some of the demonstrations include instances where a transparent cylinder is used to show the energy explosion. Frame-by-frame operation on the original video shows energy being developed outside the cylinder as well as inside the cylinder, which does seem to suggest that the zero-point energy field is involved. I have recently been contacted by one man who attended some of the engine demonstrations run by Papp and he vouches for the fact that the engine performed exactly as described.

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