## Cone Wall and Cone Turbine

The lower section of Figure 07.05.08 shows the cross-section of turbine T which has a radius of 24 cm (R24) at its upper edge and a radius of 16 cm (R16) at its lower edge and which has a height of about 24 cm (H24). Below the main conical turbine (shown below the dotted line) there is an inlet section marked as TE and which has an additional height of 12 cm (H12), and which tapers down to a radius of 12 cm (R12).

In the previous example, the general arrangement of the turbine-blades TS (shown in red), being curved pipes inside the turbine, was discussed. In this example, grooves are formed in the outer surface of the turbine cone. These grooves, or indentations, are open on the outside and the turbine cone is housed inside a cylindrical outer housing shown in grey and designated as KW. This outer wall supports an inner conical housing (not shown) and the turbine rotor revolves inside that conical housing.

Water (shown as light blue) fills the space between the turbine rotor and the outer conical housing. The water is bounded on one side by the smooth wall of the outer housing and on the other by the saw tooth shaped vertical grooves which form the turbine "blades".

This example is needed to explain the curvature of the grooves at the surface of the cone. Unlike standard turbines, the water flows from a short radius inlet, to a much larger radius outlet. Water can't accelerate to reach the greater speed needed at the longer radius, so normal turbines have the water flowing from the longer radius inward towards the shorter radius. This causes deceleration of the water flow to generate torque. Consequently, our design here appears 'wrong' in conventional terms, and seems to make no sense in normal applications. This 'wrong' design only makes sense when using a cone-like rotor with its saw tooth-like blades.

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