This is a very interesting design of magnetic motor, especially since it does not call for any materials which are not readily available from many suppliers. It also has the advantage of not needing any form of exact adjustment or balancing of magnetic forces to make it operate.
Invention Intelligence (India). The following design for a permanent magnet motor was published in the April 1977 issue of 'Invention Intelligence' in India:
This design relies on the magnetic field of a magnet being distorted by having the pole faces angled at 45 degrees. In the diagram, the magnets are shown in blue and they are mounted in a non-magnetic stator and rotor material shown in grey. The rotor is mounted on two ball races shown in yellow. The theory is that the repulsing forces of the four North-North outer magnet pairs along with the repulsing forces of the four inner South-South magnet pairs should be continuously greater than the North-South attracting forces, thus giving continuous rotation.
It appears most likely that this design is just a theory and that a working model has never been constructed. However, it is possible that this system might work very well, so the information is presented here for interest and possible experimentation. It might be remarked that making the magnet face have a 45 degree angle may well not skew the magnetic field sufficiently to give a big enough imbalance to provide significant drive power. One way to increase the effect might be to use a mu-metal strip along the back of each magnet. Mu-metal is an expensive material which conducts magnetic lines of force in a phenomenal way and so soaks up any magnetism near it:
To recap: the underlying principle of the power of magnets is that each permanent magnet mentioned here, has two magnetic poles (one "North" and one "South" pole) and these poles being of opposite type and near each other, form a "dipole". This dipole unbalances the quantum environment around the magnet, causing continuous streams of energy to flow out in every direction from the magnet. These streams of energy are not what we see as lines of magnetic force, and to date, nobody has managed to design any piece of equipment which responds to that energy and which can be used to measure it. At this point in time, all we can do to estimate the energy flow is to divert it into a battery and then assess the battery charge by measuring the length of time that the battery can power a load from the energy which it received. This is a very crude method, but it does work.
Stephen Kundel's Magnet Motor. Stephen Kundel's motor design is shown in full detail in his patent which is shown on page A - 968 of the Appendix. It uses a simple oscillating motion to position the "stator" magnets so that they provide a continuous rotational force on the output shaft:
Here, the yellow arm marked 38, rocks to the right and left, pushed by a solenoid coil 74. There is no obvious reason why this rocking motion could not be achieved by a mechanical linkage connected to the rotating output shaft 10. The three arms 20, 22 and 24, being pivoted at their upper points, are pushed into a central position by the springs 34 and 35. The magnets 50, 51 and 52, are moved by these arms, causing a continuous rotation of the output drive shaft 10. The movement of these magnets avoids the position where the magnets reach a point of equilibrium and lock into a single position.
Figures 2 and 3 show the position of the magnets, with the Figure 3 position showing a point in the output shaft rotation which is 180 degrees (half a turn) further on than the position shown in Figure 2.
Some other, more powerful magnet arrangements which can be used with this design are shown in the full patent in the Appendix.
Charles Flynn's Magnet Motor. Patent US 5,455,474 dated 3rd October 1995 gives details of this interesting design. It says: "This invention relates to a method of producing useful energy with magnets as the driving force and represents an important improvement over known constructions and it is one which is simpler to construct, can be made to be self starting, is easier to adjust, and is less likely to get out of adjustment. The present construction is also relatively easy to control, is relatively stable and produces an amazing amount of output energy considering the source of driving energy that is used. The present construction makes use of permanent magnets as the source of driving energy but shows a novel means of controlling the magnetic interaction or coupling between the magnet members and in a manner which is relatively rugged, produces a substantial amount of output energy and torque, and in a device capable of being used to generate substantial amounts of energy."
The patent describes more than one motor. The first one is like this when seen from the side:
An exploded view, shows the different parts clearly:
This construction is relatively simple and yet the operation is powerful. The power is provided by three magnets, shown shaded in blue and yellow. The lower magnet is in the form of a disc with the poles arranged on the large, circular, flat faces. This is the stator magnet which does not move. Positioned above it is a disc made of non-magnetic material (shaded in grey) and which has two magnets embedded in it. This disc is the rotor and is attached to the central vertical shaft.
Normally, the rotor would not rotate, but between the two discs there is a ring of seven coils which are used to modify the magnetic fields and produce powerful rotation. The powering up of these coils is very simple and it is arranged by shining a beam of Infra Red light from one of the Light-Emitting Diodes through a slot in an optical-timing disc attached to the rotating shaft. The LEDs and the photo-transistors are aligned with the centres of the seven coils. The position and width of the slot controls which photo-transistor gets switched on and for how long it remains powered up. This is a very neat and compact arrangement. The really interesting part of the design is how the coils modify the magnetic fields to produce the output power of the device. The orientation of the magnet poles can be swapped over, provided that this is done for all three magnets.
Shown here is the situation when one of the top magnets 54 has rotated to be above one of the coils 26 which is not yet powered up. The South pole of magnet 54 is attracted to the North pole which is the entire upper face of magnet 24 as shown by the three arrows. If a voltage is applied to coil 26, then this magnetic coupling is disrupted and altered. If any torque is developed as a result of the coil being powered up, then it will be developed to either side of the coil 26. If coil 26 is not powered up, then there will be full attraction between magnets 24 and 54 and no rotational force will be produced. You will notice that there are two rotating magnets (an even number) and seven coils (an odd number) so when one of the rotor magnets is above a coil, then the other isn't. This staggering of the two positions is essential for generating rotational torque.
This diagram shows a piece from both sides of the rotor disc, to explain the operation of the coils. On the left, magnet 56 overlaps coil 32 and coil 34. Coil 32 is powered up and this breaks the magnetic link on the left hand side of magnet 56. But, coil 34 is not powered up, so the attraction between magnet 56 and the disc magnet under the coils remains. Even though this attraction is at a downward angle, it creates a push on the rotor, driving it towards the right as shown by the red arrow.
While this is happening, the situation around the other side of the rotor disc, is shown on the right. Here, magnet 54 is above coil 36 and that coil is not powered up, so there is no resulting drive in either direction. The adjacent coil 38 is also not powered up and so has no effect on the rotation. This method of operation is very close to that of the motor design of Robert Adams described in the next chapter. It is important to understand that this method of operation is nothing like that of the John Bedini pulsers where the rotation of a disc is caused by the electrical pulse applied to a coil. Instead, here, the coil acts as a magnetic shield, being provided with the minimum possible power to do its job. The coil is, in effect, a shield which has no moving parts, and so is a very clever mechanism for overcoming the tendency for the rotor magnets locking on to the stator magnets and preventing rotation.
At any moment, six of the seven coils are inactive, so in effect, just one coil is powered. This is not a major current drain. It is important to understand that the power of this motor is provided by the permanent magnets pulling towards each other. Each of the two magnets applies a horizontal pull on the rotor every seventh of a turn, that is, every 51.1 degrees in the rotation. As the coils are an uneven number, the rotor gets a magnetic pull every 25.5 degrees in the rotation, first from one rotor magnet and then from the other rotor magnet.
It follows then, that the power of the motor can be increased by adding more magnets. The first step in this search for additional power is to add a second disc magnet and coils on the other side of the rotor, so that there is a second pull on the magnet. This has the added advantage that it balances the downwards pull of the first disc magnet with an upward pull, giving an enhanced and balanced horizontal thrust as shown here:
The coil switching is slightly different for the additional layer of coils because while we want to switch off the magnetic attraction on the lower left, we want to maintain it on the upper left, so the coils are switched as shown here:
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