Since the pump depends for its supply of fluid on the delivery of oil at low pressure from the turbine 16 into the chamber 32, an automatically operating by-pass sleeve valve device 44 for oil is provided as indicated in Fig.1, Fig.4 and Fig.5. This device comprises an exterior sleeve or tube 45 having one end directly rigidly secured as at 46 to the movable free piston 36. This sleeve 45 is provided with slots 47 intermediate its ends. A co-acting interior sleeve 48 engages telescopically and slidably within the sleeve 45 and has a closed end wall 49 and ports or slots 50 intermediate its ends, as shown. The sleeve 48 communicates with one of the delivery conduits 42 by way of an elbow 51, and the sleeve 48 is also connected with the adjacent end of the pump 39, as shown.
As long as the chamber 32 is filled with low pressure oil sufficient to balance the low air pressure in the chamber 35 on the opposite side of free piston 36, such piston will be positioned as shown in Fig.1 and Fig.4 so that the slots 47 and 50 of the two sleeves 45 and 48 are out of registration and therefore no flow path exists through them. Under such circumstances, the oil from the chamber 32 will enter the pump and will be delivered by the two conduits 42 at the required pressure to the chamber 15. Should the supply of oil from the turbine 16 to the chamber 32 diminish so that pump 39 might not be adequately supplied, then the resulting drop in pressure in the chamber 32 will cause the free piston 36 to move to the left in Fig.1 and bring the slots 47 into registration or partial registration with the slots 50, as depicted in Fig.5. This will instantly establish a by-pass for oil from one conduit 42 back through the elbow 51 and tubes 48 and 45 and their registering slots to the oil chamber 32 to maintain this chamber filled and properly pressurised at all times. The by-pass arrangement is completely automatic and responds to a diminished supply of oil from the turbine into the chamber 32, so long as the required compressed air pressure of 3-5 p.s.i. is maintained in the chamber 35.
Briefly, in summary, the system operates as follows. The pressurised inelastic and non-compressible fluid, oil, from the chamber 15 is throttled into the turbine 16 by utilising the throttle valve 17 in a control station. The resulting rotation of the shaft 27 produces the required mechanical energy or work to power a given instrumentality, such as a propeller. A relatively small component of this work energy is utilised through the coupling 40 to drive the pump 39 which maintains the necessary volumetric flow of oil from the turbine back into the high pressure chamber 15, with the automatic by-pass 44 coming into operation whenever needed.
The ultimate source of energy for the closed power system is the compressed elastic fluid, air, in the tank or bottle 10 which through the regulating valves 11 and 37 maintains a constant air pressure in the required degree in each of the chambers 12 and 35. As described, the air pressure in the high pressure chamber 12 will be approximately 500 p.s.i. and in the low pressure chamber 35 will be approximately 3-5 p.s.i.
It may be observed in Fig.1 that the tank 33 is enlarged relative to the tank 13 to compensate for the space occupied by the pump and associated components. The usable volumes of the two tanks are approximately equal.
In an operative embodiment of the invention, the two free pistons 14 and 36 and the tank bores receiving them are 8 inches in diameter. The approximate diameters of the bladed turbine wheels are 18 inches. The pump 39 is approximately 10 inches long and 5 inches in diameter. The tank 13 is about 21 inches long between its crowned end walls. The tank 33 is 10 inches in diameter adjacent to the pump 39.
The terms and expressions which have been employed herein are used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention, in the use of such terms and expressions, of excluding any equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof but it is recognised that various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention claimed.
This engine is based on an entirely different principle, and one which is not spoken about very often. Hurricanes or "twisters" as they are sometimes called, are large rotating air masses of incredible power which develop in hot areas which are more than eight degrees North or South of the equator. The distance from the equator is essential as the rotation of the Earth is needed to give them their initial spin. They usually develop over water which is at a temperature of twenty-eight degrees Centigrade or higher as that allows the air to absorb enough heat energy to get started. That is why there is a distinct "hurricane season" in these areas, since at certain times of the year the ocean temperature is just not high enough to trigger a hurricane.
What is not generally realised is that a hurricane develops excess energy due to its swirling circular movement. The generation of this extra power was observed and documented by Viktor Schauberger of Austria, who also used his observations to great effect. I think that what Schauberger says makes some people uncomfortable as they seem to think that anything "unorthodox" has to be weird and too peculiar to be mentioned. This is rather strange as all that is involved here is a simple observation of how our environment actually works. A hurricane is wider at the top than at the bottom and this concentrates power at the base of the swirling mass of air. This tapered rotation is called a "vortex" which is just a simple name to describe the shape, but any mention of "vortex power" (the power at the base of this rotation) seems to make many people uncomfortable which is most peculiar.
Leaving that aside, the question is "can we use this energy gain from the environment for our own purposes?". The answer may well be "Yes". Perhaps this principle is utilised by Richard Clem. In 1992, Richard Clem of Texas, demonstrated a self-powered engine of an unusual type. This engine, which he had been developing for twenty years or more, weighs about 200 pounds (90 kilos) and generated a measured 350 horsepower continuously over the full period of a nine-day self-powered test. Although this engine which runs from 1,800 to 2,300 rpm is especially suited to powering an electrical generator, Richard did install one in a car, and estimated that it would run for 150,000 miles without any need for attention and without any kind of fuel. Richard said that his prototype car had reached a speed of 105 mph. Just after receiving funding to produce his engine, Richard died suddenly and unexpectedly at about 48 years of age, the death certificate having "heart attack" written on it as the cause of death. Remarkably convenient timing for the oil companies who would have lost major amounts of money through reduced fuel sales if Richard's motor had gone into production.
The motor is unusual in that it is a rotary turbine style design which runs at a temperature of 3000F (1400C) and because of that high temperature, uses cooking oil as its operational fluid, rather than water as the oil has a much higher boiling point. To a quick glance, this looks like an impossible device as it appears to be a purely mechanical engine, which will definitely have an operating efficiency which is less than 100%.
In broad outline, the oil is pumped through a pipe and into the narrow end of the cone-shaped rotor. The engine is started by being rotated by an external starter motor until it reaches the speed at which it generates enough power to be sustain its own operation. The rapid spinning of the cone, causes the oil to run along spiral grooves cut in the inner face of the cone and exit through angled nozzles placed at the large end of the cone:
The operating pressure produced by the pump is 300 to 500 psi. Richard did not attempt to patent his engine as US Patent 3,697,190 "Truncated Conical Drag Pump" granted in 1972 as a liquid-asphalt pump is so close in detail that Richard felt that there was insufficient difference for him to be granted a patent:
There appears to be considerable scope for anyone who wishes to build or manufacture this engine and it is capable of acting as a heater as well as device for producing mechanical power. This suggests that water purification could be an additional "extra" option for this engine.
Prof. Alfred Evert of Germany has produced an analysis of the operation of the Clem Engine and turbines in this general category. His website http://evert.de/indefte.htm has this to say:
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The solar Stirling engine is progressively becoming a viable alternative to solar panels for its higher efficiency. Stirling engines might be the best way to harvest the power provided by the sun. This is an easy-to-understand explanation of how Stirling engines work, the different types, and why they are more efficient than steam engines.