The suggested construction method for this motor is somewhat unusual, as shown here:
The magnetic poles of the rotor are built up from thin laminations insulated from the neighbouring laminations to prevent eddy current losses, and these laminations overlap the windings of the stator electromagnets. The diagram above only shows two of these electromagnets although there would typically be eight of them for a rotor with seven poles as shown. An interesting feature is the method of using four magnets embedded in the (green) supporting disc to provide the magnetism for the rotor laminations.
It is suggested by Harold and Robert, that this arrangement be considered to be a straight motor, used to power a conventional electrical generator, rather than using additional pick-up coils attached to the motor frame to generate electrical power as part of the device itself. Motors of this type have been recorded as producing output power which is seven times the input power. This is referred to as a "COP of 7.0" and is a clear indication of "over-unity" operation, which is supposedly impossible.
It should be remarked that having an output power greater than the input power is considered impossible, due to the "Law of Conservation of Energy". This is, of course, not true, as the "Law" (actually an expected result deduced from many measured observations) only applies to 'closed' systems and all of the 'over-unity' devices described here are not 'closed' systems. If the so-called "Law" applied to all systems, then a solar panel would be impossible, because when it is in sunlight, it produces a continuous electrical current. The power which you put in, is zero, the power coming out may well be 120 watts of electricity. If it is a 'closed' system, then it is impossible. Of course, it is not a 'closed' system as sunlight is streaming down on to the panel, and if you measure the energy reaching the panel and compare it to the energy coming out of the panel, it shows that the panel has an efficiency which is less than 20%.
The same situation applies to magnetic devices. Permanent magnets channel energy from the environment into any device which utilises them. As this is external power, a properly constructed magnetic device is capable of a performance which would be 'over-unity' if it were a 'closed' system. There are many devices which have a COP which is greater than 1.0, i.e. the output power exceeds the input power provided by the user. The objective of this set of documents is to make you aware of some of these devices, and more importantly, you alert you to the fact that it is perfectly possible to tap external energy and so provide power which appears to be completely free, in the same way that sunlight is 'free'.
Teruo Kawai. In July 1995, a patent was granted to Teruo Kawai for an electric motor. In the patent, Teruo states that a measured electrical input 19.55 watts produced an output of 62.16 watts, and that is a COP of 3.18. The main sections of that patent are included in the Appendix.
In this motor, a series of electromagnets are placed in a ring to form the active stator. The rotor shaft has two iron discs mounted on it. These discs have permanent magnets bolted to them and they have wide slots cut in them to alter their magnetic effect. The electromagnets are pulsed with the pulsing controlled via an optical disc arrangement mounted on the shaft. The result is a very efficient electric motor whose output has been measured as being in excess of its input.
Self-Powered 800 watt Generator. There is a video on Google which shows a self-powered electrical generator at the location:
Initially, the generator is got up to speed, driven by the mains electrical supply. Then, when it is running normally, the mains connection is removed and the motor/generator sustains itself and is also able to power 800 watts of lightbulbs. The generator output is normal mains current.
The Muller Motor. Bill Muller who died in 2004, produced a series of very finely engineered devices, the latest of which he stated produced some 400 amps of output current at 170V DC for 20 amps at 2V DC drive current. The device both generates its own driving power and produces an electrical power output. Bill's device weighed some 90 kilos and it requires very strong magnets made of Neodymium-Iron-Boron which are expensive and can easily cause serious injury if not handled with considerable care. It should be noted that Ron Classen shows the details of his work in replicating this motor on his web site http://home.mchsi.com/~actt2/index.html and he reports that he spent in excess of US $3,000 in construction and so far, has already achieved an output power of about 170% of the input power. A video of his motor in action is at http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=65862828639099378 and his development is progressing steadily. Ronald points out that decreasing the gap between the rotor and the stator by just one millimetre raises the input and output current by ten amps, so the potential of his machine is ten times greater than its present performance. Ronald has not implemented this as yet since the cost of the switching components is fairly high. His construction looks like this:
The Muller motor has a lot in common with Robert Adam's pulsed permanent-magnet motor. Both use a rotor which contains permanent magnets. Both pulse electromagnets at the precise moment to achieve maximum rotor torque. Both have pick-up coils for generating an electrical output. There are, however, considerable differences. Bill Muller's coils are wound in an unusual way as shown below. He positions his rotor magnets off-centre in relation to the stator coils. His coils are operated in pairs which are wired in series - one each side of the rotor. He has an odd number of coils and an even number of permanent magnets. His magnets are positioned with alternate polarity: N, S, N, S, ...
In order to make it easier to follow, the diagrams below show just five coil pairs and six magnets, but much larger numbers are normally used in an actual construction of the device, typically sixteen magnets.
Rotor (1 required) Side view
If DC switching is used, then the circuit may be:
This is an unusual arrangement made all the more peculiar by the fact that the drive pulsing is carried out on the same coils which are used for power generation. The driving power pulse is applied to every successive coil which, with just five coils, makes the drive sequence 1, 3, 5, 2, 4, 1, 3, 5, 2, 4 For this operation, Coil 1 is disconnected from the power generation circuitry and then given a short high-power DC pulse. This boosts the rotation of the rotor. Coil 1 is then re-connected to the power generating circuitry, and coil 3 is disconnected and then given a drive pulse. This is repeated for every second coil, indefinitely, which is one of the reasons why there is an odd number of coils. The following table shows how the drive is operated.
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It seems like the efforts to find the best alternative energy sources are seriously being looked into by lots of countries including most US cities. One proof is the signing of the Kyoto Treaty. The main aim of the concerned group and individuals is to lessen the greenhouse gases and pollutants.