So, a wide range of different devices have the same background technique for making them work. Meyer used the pulsing for water-splitting in a hydroxy gas cell. Bedini uses the pulsing to charge batteries with cold electricity. Tesla used the pulsing to charge batteries, provide heating, cooling and lighting. Boyce uses pulsing to obtain electrolysis at 1,200% of Faraday's stated maximum rate of electrolysis. Gray used the pulsing to capture cold electricity to drive a powerful electric motor. Many different applications all based on using very short, very sharp, high-voltage pulses.
Alfred Hubbard. In 1920 Alfred Hubbard demonstrated his 'Atmospheric Power Generator' which was said to have an output power of some three times greater than the input power. It is difficult to determine the exact details of its construction, but the best information to hand suggests the following:
It consisted of one tall central iron-cored 'primary' coil 15 inches high. The core was made from 16 iron rods and the winding made of 43 turns of cable. The cable had 7 cores each of 0.09" diameter, forming a bundle 0.204" in diameter inside the insulation which had an outside diameter of 0.34" which is American Wire Gauge Size 4 wire.
Placed around the central coil were 8 'secondary' coils wound on low-carbon steel fence pipe of 2" inner diameter and approximately 2.25" outer diameter (57 mm), 15 inches high. The windings were also 43 turns of AWG No 4 wire and the coils were wired with the bottom of each coil connected to the top of the adjacent coil, i.e. the secondary coils were wired in series. The secondary coils touch each other tangentially and they also touch the central primary winding tangentially.
The generator was initially demonstrated powering an 18-foot boat with a 35 horsepower electric motor, around Portage Bay on Lake Union, Seattle at eight to ten knots, starting from the Seattle Yacht Club wharf. It appears that the wires should have been larger diameter as they started to overheat quite quickly. Dozens of people witnessed this demonstration and it was reported in the local Seattle press. Alfred is reported to have referred to the secondary windings as "electromagnets" each having both primary and secondary windings of copper wire. Details of the device are presented in Joseph Cater's book "Awesome Force" which attempts to explain the theory of its operation.
The circuit looks deceptively simple, with the DC input being converted to a rapid train of very short duration pulses, stepped up in voltage and fed to the primary winding. The output is passed through a step-down transformer and was said to be 280 Amps at 125 Volts:
The variable capacitors shown are used to tune the input and output circuits to their resonant frequencies. There appears to be similarities between this circuit and the circuitry used by Edwin Gray when he was using his power tube to drive mains light bulbs and other standard electrical equipment. Edwin used air-cored transformer windings of very heavy-duty wire, to drive the loads and while Alfred does have steel formers for the secondary coils, they are mainly air-core, unlike his primary coil. Edwin and Nikola Tesla were tapping the same source of power, and since Alfred Hubbard worked with Tesla for a short period, it seems likely that his transformer is based on the same techniques that Tesla used so successfully.
It may well be that Alfred's circuitry was actually constructed more like Tesla's circuitry for his unique coils. It might have been like this:
Alfred's association with Tesla raises some interesting points. Firstly, Tesla was aware that to generate Radiant Energy waves of the type that Edwin Gray trapped so successfully, ideally, uni-directional pulses of very short duration (1 millisecond or less) were needed. The best way to generate these is using a spark, so it is distinctly possible that Alfred's oscillator contained a spark generator. Secondly, Tesla was aware that a serially-connected bi-filar wound coil is a very effective device for collecting Radiant Energy. Might it be possible that the information on how the secondary coils were wound and connected is not quite correct, and that while the coils were connected in series, they were bifilar-wound?
In fact, it seems much more likely that there were separate inner bi-filar windings connected in series while the outer bi-filar windings were also connected in series, especially since, it was reported that the device had four wires coming out of it. This strongly suggests that the bi-filar series-connected 'secondary' windings were connected internally to form the final circuit and that the four wires were one pair for the primary winding and one pair for the serially-connected pickup set of sixteen windings:
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